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Afrikaans huistaal

Graad 4

Module 21

Grafiese tegniek, luister en woordeskat

Aktiwiteit 1

Om grafiese tegnieke in drukwerk te bespreek [lu 3.2.2]

WAT IS DRUKWERK?

Drukwerk is al die gedrukte stukke wat ons kry, byvoorbeeld koerante, tydskrifte, al die soorte boeke, etikette, seëls, banknote en dies meer. Dis hopeloos te veel om te kan opnoem.

Hoe sou ons sonder enige drukwerk klaargekom het?

Dink net ...

Nie 'n enkele koerant of 'n mooi storieboek.

Geen padkaarte om jou na 'n plek te help soek!

Hoe sou ons kon leef sonder al die banknote ...

En geen etikette op die verskillende kossoorte?

Wat dan van 'n koevert met 'n mooi seël?

Ek kon nie alles noem nie, want dis rêrig te veel.

'n Lewe sonder tydskrifte om te lees ...

'n Totale warboel en chaos sal dit wees.

Jy kry elke dag van jou lewe te doen met 'n groot verskeidenheid gedrukte werk. Jy lees dit, vat daaraan en sien dit. Dis deel van jou lewe!

Bring enige vier voorbeelde van gedrukte werk klas toe. Verdeel in groepe van vier en kyk na en voel aan julle groep se voorbeelde. Op watter soort papier is die drukwerk gedoen? Is dit blink, glad, dik, dun, grof of fyn? Gesels 'n bietjie daaroor.

Kyk na die drukwerk en bespreek die volgende vrae:

  1. Waarom is dit kleurvol?
  2. Hoekom moet dit aantreklik vir die oog lyk?
  3. Het die drukwerk trefkrag? (Slaan die betekenis na as jy die woord nie ken nie.)
  4. Hou julle daarvan?

Aktiwiteit 2

Om na teks te luister en daarop te reageer [lu 1.1]

Het jy al ooit gewonder hoe drukwerk ontstaan of begin het? Luister aandagtig na die inligting wat jou leerkrag gaan voorlees. Aan die einde gaan jy gevra word om vragies te beantwoord – dus ... spits die ore!

  1. Die Geskiedenis van Drukwerk

Drukwerk het eintlik 'n baie lang geskiedenis, maar wil jy glo, niemand weet wáár dit regtig alles begin het nie. Ons weet wel dat die Chinese en Indiërs duisende jare gelede patrone op stukke lap wat hulle gespin of geweef het, gedruk het. Hulle het die patrone op houtblokke uitgekerf, dit vol ink gesmeer en die stuk lap dan daarop gedruk. Die Chinese het later hierdie metode gevolg om boeke te druk. Hulle het in die agste eeu reeds begin om boeke te druk, maar boeke is eers in die veertiende eeu in Europa gedruk.

In daardie jare was daar maar min mense wat kon lees, maar omdat meer mense leer lees het, het die aanvraag na boeke al hoe groter begin word. Dit het egter baie lank geneem om een boek te druk en 'n vinniger manier moes gevind word.

'n Duitser, Johannes Gutenberg, het hierdie probleem opgelos. Hy het 'n metode ontwikkel waarop 'n hele bladsy op een slag gedruk kon word. Om hom met sy uitvindsel te help, het hy 'n druiwepers omskep in 'n drukpers. ('n Drukpers is die masjien wat gebruik word om afdrukke op papier of karton te maak.) Dit was die héél eerste drukpers.

Deur die jare het verskeie mense Johannes Gutenberg se metodes verbeter. Deesdae maak hulle baie van rekenaars tydens die drukproses gebruik. Die masjiene is ten volle outomaties, baie vinnig en word dikwels ook gedeeltelik deur rekenaars beheer.

Besluit of die volgende stellings waar of onwaar is.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Afrikaans huistaal graad 4. OpenStax CNX. Sep 17, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11081/1.1
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