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Value generation

  • The greater “productivity” of promiscuous collaborators is a stark example of a cluster providing a “whole is greater than the sum of its parts” (Porter 2000).

Governance

Governance is responsible for facilitating the strategic direction of an organisation. It establishes and maintains corporate values and seeks to ensure that they are embedded in the culture. Governance allows the executive to deliver the agreed vision. This study has identified that there is a culture in Wales that tends to see governance as a necessary evil; an inconvenience and a distraction. This view seems to be endemic and is in need of urgent attention. In addition there seems to be a total disconnect between the governance of different organisations, particularly those in the public sector. HE governance structures seem to have little shared vision and there is limited strategic dialogue both within and across areas of the public sector. Divisions of WAG, the HE sector, the NHS and local authorities seem to compete rather than collaborate. Whilst this view might seem controversial, it is certainly the opinion often held by business in Wales. The advantage of being a small nation that should be ‘joined up’ seems to be being lost. However, as identified during the study, green shoots of optimism can be seen as the benefits of partnerships such as the Texas/UK Collaborative draw together collaboration amongst the HE, Health, and broader public sectors, together with industry.

Take for example the comparison between Wales and Ireland in terms of alumni and diaspora. The Irish have exploited their diaspora to great economic and social effect. Virtually every city and region of the US has an Irish society and this is used effectively to establish networks and partnerships. The Welsh on the other hand do not even have a developed data base of university alumni a resource that could be very valuable in the context of the knowledge economy. The individual universities refuse to share information with each other or with government regarding their alumni. This means that each separate organisation has an under resourced alumni infrastructure leaving a valuable asset neglected. Diaspora and alumni networks can be of great value to a knowledge economy cluster in terms of partnership development, recruitment and retention of key individuals and in building the reputation of the region globally. If the executive functions of the region fail to collaborate in the common good then it is only a strong and integrated governance process that can force change.

Another identified barrier to the development and implementation of a knowledge economy cluster strategy in the South West Wales region is the ability of key actors to be commercially flexible. IP policies in particular are key to the agenda, it is they that can facilitate or conversely be a barrier to open innovation.

Perspectives from the study underpinning this are described below.

Regional coherence

  • Both the stakeholder interviews and Collaborative questionnaire highlight the importance of regional cohesiveness to establish strong and effective linkages across clusters. While strategies such as the Science Policy for Wales (2006) aim to achieve this, it is clear from stakeholder interviews that much remains to be done.
  • The role of government in providing facilitation through good governance and provision of resource was acknowledged by all interview respondents. The role of commercial value creation should be left to the private sector. However, where other value can be delivered, e.g. within the Public/Education sectors, it could be considered that Academics and Civil Servants may also be considered as a variation of Schumpeter’s Entrepreneur.
  • The institutional perspective of cohesiveness shows that those engaged in collaboration are more positive about alignments with external partners. This suggests a virtuous circle of collaboration spawning collaboration. Further data underpins this, demonstrating a greater scale of collaborative activity amongst those already engages in the TX/UK Collaborative.

Strategic imperatives

  • Embedding a collaborative culture, developing collaborative human capital, and realizing World Class multidisciplinary research collaborations are seen by all interview respondents as strategic imperatives. Respondents at all levels were aligned in this observation.
  • The recognition of mutual value generation is a key emerging theme from the responses of all stakeholders interviewed in the study. This includes consideration of academic, commercial, and economic development outputs. However some respondents draw attention to some institutions being more focused on collaboration rather than the outcomes of collaboration. This sits interestingly with the observation by Faster Cures (2010) in discussing the need for more outcome focused collaborative research activities.

Bibliography

  • Abbey JV, Mainwaring L. and Davies G.H. 2008, “Vorsprung durch Technium: building a System of Innovation in South West Wales’, Regional Studies,  Vol. 42, Iss.2, pp. 281 – 293.
  • Davis D. and Weinstein D., 1999, “Economic geography and regional production structure: an empirical investigation”, European Economic Review Vol. 43 , pp. 379–407.
  • De Laurentis C., Cooke P. and Williams, G., 2003, “Barriers to the Knowledge Economy- New Media Cluster in the Periphery”, Paper presented at the Regional Studies Association International Conference, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna Pisa 12th -15th April 2003.
  • Faster Cures, 2010, “Entrepeneurs for Cures: The Critical Need for Innovative Approaches to Disease Research”, The Center for Accelerating Medical Solutions.
  • Milken Global Conference, Los Angeles April 2010.
  • Moore G., 2005, “Dealling with Darwin: How Great Companies Innovate at Every Stage of Evolution”, Portfolio Hardcover, ISBN-10 -1591841070.
  • NAW, 2006, “Enterprise, Innovation and Networks Committee, Review of Science Policy in Wales”, National Assembly of Wales.
  • OECD, 1996, “The Knowledge-based Economy”, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
  • ONS, 2004, “Social Trends Report 34: Proportional effect on earnings of a degree level qualification: by sex and degree subject”, 1993-2001, Dataset ST340510, UK National Statistics.
  • Porter M., 2000, “Location, Competition and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy”, Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 4, Iss. 15, pp 15-34.
  • Porter M. and Stern S., 1999, “The New Challenge to Americas Prosperity: Findings from the Innovation Index”, Council of Competitiveness.
  • Work Foundation, 2006, “The Knowledge Economy in Europe: A Report prepared for the 2007 EU Spring Council, The Work Foundation.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
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That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
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Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
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for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Damian Reply
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Cied
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abeetha Reply
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Porter
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Porter
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Yasmin
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AMJAD
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
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Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
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after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
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name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
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Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
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Source:  OpenStax, A study of how a region can lever participation in a global network to accelerate the development of a sustainable technology cluster. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11417/1.2
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