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While eastern and southern Italy, in spite of the Moslem raids, remained for the most part Byzantine in culture, the rest of the peninsula developed a new civilization, a new language, religion and art from its Roman heritage. The Italian language became the most melodious of tongues; Italian Christianity was a romantic and colorful paganism, - a frank mythology of legend and miracle. Rome itself declined and science succumbed to superstition and only medicine kept its head up through the monasteries. Latin Christendom adopted the Iranian type of heavy armored cavalry and with this began to stem the barbarian tide and pave the way for counter-expansion in the next two centuries. A bright spot on the peninsula was Salerno, where a university with a medical school was founded, which soon became famous throughout Europe. (Ref. 49 , 125 )

CENTRAL EUROPE

Germany

The empire of Karl the Great (Charlemagne) was a theocratic church-state with his functioning as a priest-king and as an emperor. Included in his religious missions had been the conquest and conversion of the Saxons. He regarded the pope as simply his chaplain. (Ref. 181 ) At the same time, his empire was actually an artificial construction and did not survive him. Nevertheless, in a sense, he saved civilization because through him the Atlantic world re-established contact with the ancient, Mediterranean culture. He did this by arranging for the collecting and copying of books. With the exception of 3 or 4 surviving original antique manuscripts, our whole knowledge of ancient literature has come only through the copying that began under Charlemagne. These copyists also developed the Carolingian script which has survived until today. Their books were works of art and overall splendid masterpieces. (Ref. 33 ) The emperor died in 814, five years after the realm had been swept by famine. (Ref. 213 ) The Carolingian Dynasty immediately declined as the empire was divided by his one surviving son among three grandsons - Pepin, Louis and Karl, all of whom died within 8 years. Their successors were weak leaders and many local wars broke out between rulers, nobles and church with resulting recurrent partitions of the empire. Finally by the Treaty of Verdun (843) the original empire was officially divided into three parts, with Lothair keeping the title of emperor and a central area, extending from the Netherlands almost to Naples. Charles the Bald got the western area and Ludwig the eastern area and in this way France and Germany became dissociated. (Ref. 57 ) It was not originally a difference of race or temperament but a difference of language and tradition. The western branch was assimilated by the country-side Latin, which became French, while the Germanic group had retained their original Germanic tongue. The Franks in north Germany even differed also from the Swabians and south Germans. Ludwig actually was the first king of Germany, but the artificial divisions of the empire were still poorly arranged because they paid no heed to these growing regional differences. The monstrous territory of Lotharingia (French - "Lorraine") was to be disputed between France and Germany well up into the 20th century. The Italian part was also a continued problem area, with subsequent German emperors having to attempt to reconquer the region at frequent intervals for centuries. Additional Notes

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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