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Geological disturbances

Volcanoes

An active volcano occurs when magma ( molten rock ) reaches the earth's surface through a crack or vent in the crust. Volcanic activity can involve the extrusion of lava on the surface, the ejection of solid rock and ash, and the release of water vapor or gas (carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide). Volcanoes commonly occur near plate boundaries where the motion of the plates has created cracks in the lithosphere through which the magma can flow. About eighty percent of volcanoes occur at convergent plate boundaries where subducted material melts and rises through cracks in the crust. The Cascade Range was formed in this way.

Volcanoes can be classified according to the type and form of their ejecta. The basic types are: composite volcanoes, shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and lava domes. Composite volcanoes are steep-sided, symmetrical cones built of multiple layers of viscous lava and ash. Most composite volcanoes have a crater at the summit which contains the central vent. Lavas flow from breaks in the crater wall or from cracks on the flanks of the cone. Mt Fuji in Japan and Mt Ranier in Washington are examples of composite volcanoes.

Shield volcanoes are built almost entirely of highly fluid (low viscosity) lava flows. They form slowly from numerous flows that spread out over a wide area from a central vent. The resultant structure is a broad, gently sloping cone with a profile like a warrior’s shield. Mt Kilauea in Hawaii is an example of a shield volcano.

Cinder cones are the simplest type of volcano. They form when lava blown violently into the area breaks into small fragments that solidify and fall as cinders. A steep-sided cone shape is formed around the vent, with a crater at the summit. Sunset Crater in Arizona is a cinder cone that formed less than a thousand years ago, disrupting the lives of the native inhabitants of the region.

Lava domes are formed when highly viscous lava is extruded from a vent and forms a rounded, steep-sided dome. The lava piles up around and on the vent instead of flowing away, mostly growing by expansion from within. Lava domes commonly occur within the craters or on the flanks of composite volcanoes.

Earthquakes

An earthquake occurs when built up strain in a rock mass causes it to rupture suddenly. The region where the rupture occurs is called the focus . This is often deep below the surface of the crust. The point on the surface directly above the focus is called the epicenter . Destructive waves propagate outward from the region of the quake, traveling throughout the earth. The magnitude of an earthquake is a measure of the total amount of energy released. The first step in determining the magnitude is to measure the propagated waves using a device called a seismograph . Based on this information, the earthquake is given a number classification on a modified Richter scale . The scale is logarithmic, so a difference of one unit means a difference of ten-fold in wave intensity, which corresponds to an energy difference of 32-fold. The intensity of an earthquake is an indicator of the effect of an earthquake at a particular locale. The effect depends not only on the magnitude of the earthquake, but also the types of subsurface materials and the structure and design of surface structures.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
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