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X-rays

While x-rays are used significantly in medicine, prolonged exposure to X-rays can lead to cell damage and cancer.

For example, a mammogram is an x-ray of the human breast to detect breast cancer, but if a woman starts having regular mammograms when she is too young, her chances of getting breast cancer increases.

Gamma-rays

Due to the high energy of gamma-rays, they are able to cause serious damage when absorbed by living cells.

Gamma-rays are not stopped by the skin and can induce DNA alteration by interfering with the genetic material of the cell. DNA double-strand breaks are generally accepted to be the most biologically significant lesion by which ionising radiation causes cancer and hereditary disease.

A study done on Russian nuclear workers exposed to external whole-body gamma-radiation at high cumulative doses shows a link between radiation exposure and death from leukaemia, lung, liver, skeletal and other solid cancers.

Cellphone radiation and health concerns have been raised, especially following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephony throughout the world. This is because mobile phones use electromagnetic waves in the microwave range. These concerns have induced a large body of research. Concerns about effects on health have also been raised regarding other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks. In 2009 the World Health Organisation announced that they have found a link between brain cancer and cellphones.

Cellphone users are recommended to minimise radiation, by for example:

2. Keep the mobile phone away from the body.
3. Do not telephone in a car without an external antenna.

Exercise - penetrating ability of em radiation

1. Indicate the penetrating ability of the different kinds of EM radiation and relate it to energy of the radiation.
2. Describe the dangers of gamma rays, X-rays and the damaging effect of ultra-violet radiation on skin

Summary

1. Electromagnetic radiation has both a wave and a particle nature.
2. Electromagnetic waves travel at a speed of $3×{10}^{8}\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}m·{s}^{-1}$ in a vaccum.
3. The Electromagnetic spectrum consists of the follwing types of radiation: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma-rays.
4. Gamma-rays have the most energy and are the most penetrating, while radio waves have the lowest energy and are the least penetrating.

End of chapter exercise

1. What is the energy of a photon of EM radiation with a frequency of $3×{10}^{8}$  Hz?
2. What is the energy of a photon of light with a wavelength of 660 nm?
3. List the main types of electromagnetic radiation in order of increasing wavelength.
4. List the main uses of:
2. infrared
3. gamma rays
4. X-rays
5. Explain why we need to protect ourselves from ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
7. What precautions should we take when using cell phones?
8. Write a short essay on a type of electromagnetic waves. You should look at uses, advantages and disadvantages of your chosen radiation.
9. Explain why some types of electromagnetic radiation are more penetrating than others.

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
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