# 0.16 Phy1140: force and motion -- introduction  (Page 2/4)

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Unbalanced forces

In this module, we begin a study of the influence of unbalanced forces acting on bodies along with a study of the motion produced in bodies as a result ofunbalanced forces.

Statics versus dynamics

The earlier modules dealt with statics . We now begin a study of dynamics . The study of dynamics hinges largely on three important laws of motion, which werestated by Sir Issac Newton in 1686.

Making bodies move

We know from experience that we can cause small bodies to move by pulling or pushing them with our hands. In other words, we can cause a body to move by exerting a force onthe body. We also know that larger bodies can be caused to move by pulling or pushing them with a machine or with a beast of burden.

We are also familiar with the idea of falling bodies that move independently of someone pushing orpulling. We have come to know this as the result of the gravitational attraction between masses.

## Aristotle's contribution, or lack thereof

I have never forgotten my physics professor, Brother Rudolph, at St. Mary's University in San Antonio, Texas, telling the class that Aristotle was ahindrance to science.

Aristotle taught that heavier bodies fall faster than lighter bodies, but he was wrong. It has been proven that all bodies fall towards the earth at the sameacceleration when the effects of air resistance are eliminated.

This is not too difficult to prove for yourself. A small piece of paper will fall to the ground much moreslowly than a coin when the paper is in its normal state. However, if the paper is crumpled into a very tight ball, greatly reducing the effect of air resistance, itwill fall to the ground almost as fast as the coin.

## Galileo's contribution

Galileo and Newton clarified the ideas of motion through a series of experiments. For example, Galileo discovered the important relationship between force andacceleration. He concluded that in the absence of air resistance, freely falling objects have the same acceleration regardless of their differing weights.

Acceleration of gravity is constant

By rolling balls down inclined planes, Galileo discovered that the distance covered under a steady force is proportional to the square of the time ofdescent. By this, he concluded that acceleration is constant, at least near the surface of the earth.

Two cannon balls

The story goes that Galileo dropped two cannon balls of different weights off the Leaning Tower of Pisa and observed that they struck the ground below atexactly the same time. From this, he concluded that falling bodies are subject to the same acceleration regardless of their weight.

Inertia

By rolling a ball down one inclined plane and up a facing incline plane, Galileo observed that the ball tended to rise to (almost) the original height on thesecond inclined plane. This was true even if the second incline plane was less steep than the first.

This suggested that if the second inclined plane were perfectly flat, the ball would roll forever trying to regain its original height. From this, Galileo issaid to have concluded that objects at rest tend to remain at rest, and objects in motion tend to remain in motion with the same velocity. (Recall that a changein direction is a change in velocity.)

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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