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At home, the Avis Dynasty continued with Manoel I the Great ruling until 1521, then Joao III, followed by Sebastian I (1557-78). The latter undertook a new religious war against the Moors and was killed in the process, ending the dynasty. The Avis had been good rulers and their empire had had good administrators so that Lisbon had become a center of wealth, luxury and a depository for Asiatic goods. The only cloud on the horizon had resulted from Manoel's borrowing from Genoese bankers to equip his Asian-bound ships. Interest on these debts and agents' dishonesty cut heavily into the trade profits and the kings did not do as well as others around them. (Ref. 279 )

As the century progressed black slavery, imperial war, corruption at home and other features began to lay the groundwork for decline. An earthquake, which killed 30,000 people in Lisbon in 1531 did not help matters. Following the lead of Spain, Portugal expelled her Jews and soon the Inquisition entered with consequences similar to those in Spain. In the dynastic struggle which followed the end of the Avis Dynasty, the Spanish, under the Duke of Alva, invaded Portugal and defeated a Portuguese contingent in the battle of Alcantara in 1580, near Lisbon, thus allowing the Spanish king, Philip II, to also become the Portuguese monarch, at least in theory. English, Dutch and French forces then began to attack the Portuguese overseas colonies. (Ref. 119 , 229 , 222 )


Louis XII died in 1515 without heirs and the Valois, Francois I, became king and entered in the intrigues of a complicated Europe. Within 8 months he had invaded Italy and defeated a seasoned Swiss mercenary army of the pope near Milan. Venice, still antagonistic to Emperor Maximilian, supported Francois' armies. (Ref. 291 ) These "Italian Wars" were actually the start of nearly 60 years of warfare of France with Spain, ending in the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis, in 1559. Since Spain was ruled by Charles V, after 1540 Francois entered negotiations that were designed as a three-pronged attack against the Habsburgs, whom he felt to be his greatest antagonist. The triad attack included: (1) Subsidies to German Protestants so that they could attack Charles V from the north. (2) Alliance with the Turks to attack Austria from the east. (3) Launching a campaign with the French army from the west.

The Holy Roman Empire did decline but this was certainly not in any way the result of Francois' manipulations. Actually the French king was held as a prisoner in Madrid by Charles for about a year (1525) and his children were held as hostages much longer. (Ref. 292 ) It is also true that Francois was so busy with women that he had very little time for administration. He lived lavishly to the extent that he impoverished his people. His sister Marguerite and his mother Louise d'Angouleme of Savoy were very influential in his government and the former was very tolerant religiously, protecting many Protestants as the Reformation began to arrive in France. In 1536 Francois I did occupy the Duchy of Savoy, but by the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis Duke Emmanuel Philibert re-obtained the Duchy, excepting that portion which had been taken by the Swiss.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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