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What more could we want to know about the structure of an atom? We know that atoms contain positively and negatively charged particles, and that the number of these charges in each atom is different for each element. We also know that the positive charges are concentrated in a tiny nucleus, and that the electrons move around the nucleus in a space that is much, much larger than the nucleus.

However, some of the most important questions we asked in the previous Concept Development Study are still unanswered. Remember that we saw that carbon and nitrogen have very similar atomic masses. Now we can add that these elements have very similar atomic numbers, so their atoms have similar numbers of protons and electrons. But carbon and nitrogen are, in most chemical and physical ways, very different. Similarly, some elements like sodium and potassium have very different atomic numbers but have quite similar chemical and physical properties. It seems that comparing the properties of two different atoms is not very easy to understand just from comparing the numbers of protons and electrons the atoms contain.

To continue to understand the answers to these questions, we need even more detail about the structure of each type of atom.


In this study, we will assume that we know the postulates of the Atomic Molecular Theory and our measurements of relative atomic masses. We know that an element is composed of individual atoms with identical masses, and we know that the atoms of different elements have different masses, which have been measured.

We will also assume that we know that structure of an atom, with a tiny, massive, positively charged nucleus surrounded by a much larger empty space in which electrons move. The positive charge on the nucleus is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus and, in a neutral atom, is also equal to the number of electrons moving about the nucleus. The number, called the atomic number, is unique for each type of atom. No two elements have the same atomic number, and amongst the naturally occurring elements, no atomic number is skipped: for every integer up to 118 we know an element with that atomic number.

In this study, we will need a very important observation borrowed from the study of Physics. We will use Coulomb’s Law to describe the interaction of charged particles. Coulomb’s Law is an algebraic expression which relates the strength of the interaction between two charged particles to the sizes of the charges on the particles and the distance between them. We can think of the strength of the interaction between particles as either the force that one particle exerts on the other particle or the potential energy which exists when the two particles interact with each other. We will focus on the potential energy, which we will call V . Let’s think of two particles, one with charge q 1 and the other with charge q 2 . These charges can be either positive or negative, depending on the properties of the particles. Let’s place the two particles a distance r away from each other. Then the potential energy of interaction between these two charged particles is:

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2012. OpenStax CNX. Aug 16, 2012 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11444/1.4
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