<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

The previous American National Standards Institute (ANSI) FORTRAN standard release, FORTRAN 77 (X3.9-1978), was written to promote portability of FORTRAN programs between different platforms. It didn't invent new language components, but instead incorporated good features that were already available in production compilers. Unlike FORTRAN 77, FORTRAN 90 (ANSI X3.198-1992) brings new extensions and features to the language. Some of these just bring FORTRAN up to date with newer languages like C (dynamic memory allocation, scoping rules) and C++ (generic function interfaces). But some of the new features are unique to FORTRAN (array operations). Interestingly, while the FORTRAN 90 specification was being developed, the dominant high performance computer architectures were scalable SIMD systems such as the Connection Machine and shared-memory vector-parallel processor systems from companies like Cray Research.

FORTRAN 90 does a surprisingly good job of meeting the needs of these very different architectures. Its features also map reasonably well onto the new shared uniform memory multiprocessors. However, as we will see later, FORTRAN 90 alone is not yet sufficient to meet the needs of the scalable distributed and nonuniform access memory systems that are becoming dominant at the high end of computing.

The FORTRAN 90 extensions to FORTRAN 77 include:

  • Array constructs
  • Dynamic memory allocation and automatic variables
  • Pointers
  • New data types, structures
  • New intrinsic functions, including many that operate on vectors or matrices
  • New control structures, such as a WHERE statement
  • Enhanced procedure interfaces

Fortran 90 array constructs

With FORTRAN 90 array constructs, you can specify whole arrays or array sections as the participants in unary and binary operations. These constructs are a key feature for "unserializing" applications so that they are better suited to vector computers and parallel processors. For example, say you wish to add two vectors, A and B. In FORTRAN 90, you can express this as a simple addition operation, rather than a traditional loop. That is, you can write:


A = A + B

instead of the traditional FORTRAN 77 loop:


DO I=1,N A(I) = A(I) + B(I)ENDDO

The code generated by the compiler on your workstation may not look any different, but for some of the parallel machines available now and workstations just around the corner, the difference are significant. The FORTRAN 90 version states explicitly that the computations can be performed in any order, including all in parallel at the same time.

One important effect of this is that if the FORTRAN 90 version experienced a floating-point fault adding element 17, and you were to look at the memory in a debugger, it would be perfectly legal for element 27 to be already computed.

You are not limited to one-dimensional arrays. For instance, the element-wise addition of two two-dimensional arrays could be stated like this: Just in case you are wondering, A*B gives you an element-wise multiplication of array members­­— not matrix multiplication. That is covered by a FORTRAN 90 intrinsic function.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, High performance computing. OpenStax CNX. Aug 25, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11136/1.5
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'High performance computing' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask