0.4 Generalizing from the specific case: introducing the hardy

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Formulating the components of the hardy-weinberg equation

The probability rule we used in another module to predict genotype frequencies in the offspring generation of a specific population:

If every individual in a population has an equal probability of surviving and producing surviving offspring, then a genotype is expected to appear in the offspring generation with a frequency (probability) equal to the mathematical product of the frequency with which each allele that forms the genotype occurs in the population producing it.

can be use to generate a general formula for doing the same thing. That is, we can create a formula that describes how frequently particular genotypes will appear in the offspring generation when a population is not subject to an agent of evolution. This formula is known as the Hardy-Weinberg equation.

To do this, we will first generate the individual elements of the Hardy-Weinberg equation.

As the boxed rule above says, offspring genotype frequencies are calculated using parental allele frequencies. So imagine a population that has only two alleles for a given locus, A and a , and that in this population

• the A allele occurs with a frequency equal to p
• the a allele occurs with a frequency equal to q

To make sure you understand these phrases, substitute a number for p or for q. For example, p might be 0.4 meaning that the A allele occurs in 40% of the population's loci for this gene.

Notice that, because only two alleles exist in the population for this locus, the frequencies of the A and a alleles, p and q respectively, must sum to 1, the equivalent of 100%. Or

• p + q = 1

Also notice that, if we know the frequency of only one of the two alleles in a population, we can use simple algebra to work out the frequency of the second. For example, if we know p, the frequency of the A allele, then

• q = 1 - p

And, of course, if we know q, the frequency of the a allele, then

• p = 1 - q

To confirm your understanding of this relationship between the frequencies with which two alleles occur in a population when only two alleles exist for a given locus, answer the following questions.

Please explain in your own words why p + q must always equal 1 when only two alleles exist in a population for a given locus.

An example answer: I imagine a locus as slots for alleles. In diploid organisms, each individual will have two 'slots' or two loci for the particular gene of interest, one per chromosome. If only two alleles exist to fill every slot in this population, the slots that are not filled with one of those two alleles must be filled with the second. Consequently, if 50% of the slots are filled with A alleles, then the remaining 50% must be filled with a alleles to account for 100% of the population's loci. Because 50% is equivalent to a frequency of 0.5, then the frequency of the A allele or p equals 0.5 as does the frequency of the a allele or q so that p + q = 1.

Let’s consider a real example of this. In 2005, Stefasson et al. reported the fascinating discovery of an allele in humans whose presence is associated with increased fertility in Icelandic and European populations. Females with at least one copy of the allele have approximately 3.5%, and males 2.9%, more children on average than non-carriers. The exact mechanism by which the allele, known as H2, affects fertility is unknown.

If we know that 21% of European loci for this gene house the H2 allele, then how frequently must the single alternative allele, H1, for that locus occur in this population? Why?

If 21% of the loci (equivalent to a frequency of 0.21) in a population contain the H2 allele and H1 is the only other possible allele for this locus, then 79% of the remaining loci (equivalent to a frequency of 0.79) must have this allele. No other alleles exist for this locus consequently, if H2 does not occur at a locus then H1 must be there instead.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Understanding the hardy-weinberg equation. OpenStax CNX. Oct 22, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10472/1.1
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