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Formulas from geometry

A = area , V = Volume , and S = lateral surface area

The figure shows five geometric figures. The first is a parallelogram with height labeled as h and base as b. Below the figure is the formula for area, A = bh. The second is a triangle with height labeled as h and base as b. Below the figure is the formula for area, A = (1/2)bh.. The third is a trapezoid with the top horizontal side labeled as a, height as h, and base as b. Below the figure is the formula for area, A = (1/2)(a + b)h. The fourth is a circle with radius labeled as r. Below the figure is the formula for area, A= (pi)(r^2), and the formula for circumference, C = 2(pi)r. The fifth is a sector of a circle with radius labeled as r, sector length as s, and angle as theta. Below the figure is the formula for area, A = (1/2)r^2(theta), and sector length, s = r(theta) (theta in radians). The figure shows three solid figures. The first is a cylinder with height labeled as h and radius as r. Below the figure are the formulas for volume, V = (pi)(r^2)h, and surface area, S = 2(pi)rh. The second is a cone with height labeled as h, radius as r, and lateral side length as l. Below the figure are the formulas for volume, V = (1/3)(pi)(r^2)h, and surface area, S = (pi)rl. The third is a sphere with radius labeled as r. Below the figure are the formulas for volume, V = (4/3)(pi)(r^3), and surface area, S = 4(pi)r^2.

Formulas from algebra

Laws of exponents

x m x n = x m + n x m x n = x m n ( x m ) n = x m n x n = 1 x n ( x y ) n = x n y n ( x y ) n = x n y n x 1 / n = x n x y n = x n y n x y n = x n y n x m / n = x m n = ( x n ) m

Special factorizations

x 2 y 2 = ( x + y ) ( x y ) x 3 + y 3 = ( x + y ) ( x 2 x y + y 2 ) x 3 y 3 = ( x y ) ( x 2 + x y + y 2 )

Quadratic formula

If a x 2 + b x + c = 0 , then x = b ± b 2 4 c a 2 a .

Binomial theorem

( a + b ) n = a n + ( n 1 ) a n 1 b + ( n 2 ) a n 2 b 2 + + ( n n 1 ) a b n 1 + b n ,

where ( n k ) = n ( n 1 ) ( n 2 ) ( n k + 1 ) k ( k 1 ) ( k 2 ) 3 2 1 = n ! k ! ( n k ) !

Formulas from trigonometry

Right-angle trigonometry

sin θ = opp hyp csc θ = hyp opp cos θ = adj hyp sec θ = hyp adj tan θ = opp adj cot θ = adj opp

The figure shows a right triangle with the longest side labeled hyp, the shorter leg labeled as opp, and the longer leg labeled as adj. The angle between the hypotenuse and the adjacent side is labeled theta.

Trigonometric functions of important angles

θ Radians sin θ cos θ tan θ
0 ° 0 0 1 0
30 ° π / 6 1 / 2 3 / 2 3 / 3
45 ° π / 4 2 / 2 2 / 2 1
60 ° π / 3 3 / 2 1 / 2 3
90 ° π / 2 1 0

Fundamental identities

sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1 sin ( θ ) = sin θ 1 + tan 2 θ = sec 2 θ cos ( θ ) = cos θ 1 + cot 2 θ = csc 2 θ tan ( θ ) = tan θ sin ( π 2 θ ) = cos θ sin ( θ + 2 π ) = sin θ cos ( π 2 θ ) = sin θ cos ( θ + 2 π ) = cos θ tan ( π 2 θ ) = cot θ tan ( θ + π ) = tan θ

Law of sines

sin A a = sin B b = sin C c

The figure shows a nonright triangle with vertices labeled A, B, and C. The side opposite angle A is labeled a. The side opposite angle B is labeled b. The side opposite angle C is labeled c.

Law of cosines

a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2 b c cos A b 2 = a 2 + c 2 2 a c cos B c 2 = a 2 + b 2 2 a b cos C

Addition and subtraction formulas

sin ( x + y ) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y sin ( x y ) = sin x cos y cos x sin y cos ( x + y ) = cos x cos y sin x sin y cos ( x y ) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y tan ( x + y ) = tan x + tan y 1 tan x tan y tan ( x y ) = tan x tan y 1 + tan x tan y

Double-angle formulas

sin 2 x = 2 sin x cos x cos 2 x = cos 2 x sin 2 x = 2 cos 2 x 1 = 1 2 sin 2 x tan 2 x = 2 tan x 1 tan 2 x

Half-angle formulas

sin 2 x = 1 cos 2 x 2 cos 2 x = 1 + cos 2 x 2

Questions & Answers

what is function?
Ryan Reply
A set of points in which every x value (domain) corresponds to exactly one y value (range)
Tim
what is lim (x,y)~(0,0) (x/y)
NIKI Reply
limited of x,y at 0,0 is nt defined
Alswell
But using L'Hopitals rule is x=1 is defined
Alswell
Could U explain better boss?
emmanuel
value of (x/y) as (x,y) tends to (0,0) also whats the value of (x+y)/(x^2+y^2) as (x,y) tends to (0,0)
NIKI
can we apply l hospitals rule for function of two variables
NIKI
why n does not equal -1
K.kupar Reply
ask a complete question if you want a complete answer.
Andrew
I agree with Andrew
Bg
f (x) = a is a function. It's a constant function.
Darnell Reply
proof the formula integration of udv=uv-integration of vdu.?
Bg Reply
Find derivative (2x^3+6xy-4y^2)^2
Rasheed Reply
no x=2 is not a function, as there is nothing that's changing.
Vivek Reply
are you sure sir? please make it sure and reply please. thanks a lot sir I'm grateful.
The
i mean can we replace the roles of x and y and call x=2 as function
The
if x =y and x = 800 what is y
Joys Reply
y=800
Gift
800
Bg
how do u factor the numerator?
Drew Reply
Nonsense, you factor numbers
Antonio
You can factorize the numerator of an expression. What's the problem there? here's an example. f(x)=((x^2)-(y^2))/2 Then numerator is x squared minus y squared. It's factorized as (x+y)(x-y). so the overall function becomes : ((x+y)(x-y))/2
The
The problem is the question, is not a problem where it is, but what it is
Antonio
I think you should first know the basics man: PS
Vishal
Yes, what factorization is
Antonio
Antonio bro is x=2 a function?
The
Yes, and no.... Its a function if for every x, y=2.... If not is a single value constant
Antonio
you could define it as a constant function if you wanted where a function of "y" defines x f(y) = 2 no real use to doing that though
zach
Why y, if domain its usually defined as x, bro, so you creates confusion
Antonio
Its f(x) =y=2 for every x
Antonio
Yes but he said could you put x = 2 as a function you put y = 2 as a function
zach
F(y) in this case is not a function since for every value of y you have not a single point but many ones, so there is not f(y)
Antonio
x = 2 defined as a function of f(y) = 2 says for every y x will equal 2 this silly creates a vertical line and is equivalent to saying x = 2 just in a function notation as the user above asked. you put f(x) = 2 this means for every x y is 2 this creates a horizontal line and is not equivalent
zach
The said x=2 and that 2 is y
Antonio
that 2 is not y, y is a variable 2 is a constant
zach
So 2 is defined as f(x) =2
Antonio
No y its constant =2
Antonio
what variable does that function define
zach
the function f(x) =2 takes every input of x within it's domain and gives 2 if for instance f:x -> y then for every x, y =2 giving a horizontal line this is NOT equivalent to the expression x = 2
zach
Yes true, y=2 its a constant, so a line parallel to y axix as function of y
Antonio
Sorry x=2
Antonio
And you are right, but os not a function of x, its a function of y
Antonio
As function of x is meaningless, is not a finction
Antonio
yeah you mean what I said in my first post, smh
zach
I mean (0xY) +x = 2 so y can be as you want, the result its 2 every time
Antonio
OK you can call this "function" on a set {2}, but its a single value function, a constant
Antonio
well as long as you got there eventually
zach
2x^3+6xy-4y^2)^2 solve this
femi
follow algebraic method. look under factoring numerator from Khan academy
moe
volume between cone z=√(x^2+y^2) and plane z=2
Kranthi Reply
answer please?
Fatima
It's an integral easy
Antonio
V=1/3 h π (R^2+r2+ r*R(
Antonio
How do we find the horizontal asymptote of a function using limits?
Lerato Reply
Easy lim f(x) x-->~ =c
Antonio
solutions for combining functions
Amna Reply
what is a function? f(x)
Jeremy Reply
one that is one to one, one that passes the vertical line test
Andrew
It's a law f() that to every point (x) on the Domain gives a single point in the codomain f(x)=y
Antonio
is x=2 a function?
The
restate the problem. and I will look. ty
jon Reply
is x=2 a function?
The
What is limit
MaHeSh Reply
it's the value a function will take while approaching a particular value
Dan
don ger it
Jeremy
what is a limit?
Dlamini
it is the value the function approaches as the input approaches that value.
Andrew
Thanx
Dlamini
Its' complex a limit It's a metrical and topological natural question... approaching means nothing in math
Antonio
is x=2 a function?
The

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Source:  OpenStax, Calculus volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Feb 05, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11964/1.2
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