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It was a bad century for Finland. There were continued, intermittent beatings by Swedish armies who first conquered and baptized the Tavastians and then forty years later did the same for the Karelians. In the meantime the Principality of Novgorod had seized a large part of Karelia in 1220. (Ref. 89 )

Overseas scandinavian centers

Iceland remained the most active literary center in the Scandinavian world. The colonies on Greenland also thrived and more will be written about them under NORTH AMERICA, this chapter.

Eastern europe

Southern baltic area (see map in this section of the next chapter)

Lithuanians and Latvians were remnants of the eastern Balts, but all these people had gradually been Slavonized in the 5 or 6 centuries leading up to this 13th. We noted in the discussion above that the Danes conquered and tried to Christianize Livonia and Estonia early in the century. Tallinn, which was a Danish castle, was the Estonian name for the town of Reval, citadel of the Danish king, Waldemar II. Later, German merchants transformed it into a port for the Hanseatic League. The Danes were followed by the German Teutonic Knights along with various crusaders, monks, and Knights of the Sword, offering either conversion to Christianity or decapitation. They forged continually eastward almost completely exterminating the pagan Prussians and thinning out the Livonians. Teutonic orders were established in Riga as early as 1201, causing the disintegration of the Curonians and Semigallians, who were two of some eleven separate, Prussian tribes. The Lithuanians, alone, resisted the Teutonic Knights and absorbed the Knights of the Sword, so that in a sense they protected the Russians. Written history of the Balts begins only at that point, as the Lithuanians consolidated themselves into a powerful state. Various Lithuanian tribes were first united about the middle of the century under Mindaugas. He was baptized a Christian in 1251 but after he and his two sons were assassinated in 1263, the people reverted to paganism. All Balts worshiped a goddess of fate, Laima, closely connected to the sun but they also had multiple demi-gods and goddesses. After they finally became Christianized permanently the Lithuanians became chiefly Roman Catholic while the Latvians became divided between Catholicism and Lutheranism. (Ref. 61 )

At the beginning of the century in a period of some German civil wars, the Danish king also seized Holstein, Mechlenburg, Pomerania and the cities of Lubeck, Hamburg and Bremen, but after 1220, Frederick II defeated Denmark and reconquered these lands, thereafter redoubling the efforts to colonize them. An abundance of grain from the Baltic region helped to supply famine areas in the rest of northern Europe and barley malt allowed a large brewing industry to develop in Hamburg and adjacent areas. (Ref. 222 ) In this entire northern zone along the Baltic it was difficult to keep farm animals alive through the hard winters and there were long periods when no fresh meat or fish could be had, so there was much salting of meat - chiefly pork and fish - and herring was the most important in the salt fish trade. One could buy 20 pounds of meat for 5 cents, but then had to use 2 more for 2 pounds of salt, plus some peppercorns, cloves, etc., for the preservation. In all medieval cooking something had to be used to absorb the salt - bread crumbs, grain, spices, etc. in the form of sauces. (Ref. 211 )

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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