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New models of shared decision-making emerged since 2001 which provided specific structures for implementation. Researchers at the Center for Research in Educational Policy at the University of Memphis developed the Total Teamwork System (TTS), based on Vroom and Yetton’s original model. When teams used TTS the decisions were more acceptable. When not used, negative attributions were generated (Valesky, Horgan, Caughey,&Smith, 2003). Kepner-Tregoe (2004) emphasized that correctly identifying the problem to be addressed as an essential first step prior to data gathering, problem analysis, and solution generation. Another model published since 2001 is the synergistic decision-making model which focused on the need for communication skills: listening, responding, clarifying, and reinforcing-- all of which are necessary to facilitate shared decision-making (Lambert, 2004).


Using the same procedures and questions, 13 researchers and moderators led 13 focus groups from 2004 through 2006. Leadership questions around democratic community, school improvement, and social justice queried leaders concerning their practices and perceptions (Murphy, 2002). Each session’s protocol began with building rapport and asking questions, followed by summaries of key points (see Krueger&Casey, 2000). Recordings were made of the proceedings and transcribed verbatim.

Each of the three authors independently read all focus group transcripts (Denzin&Lincoln, 1994) noting participant comments, strands of thinking, and examples. Independent reading and analyses preceded conference calls to arrive at themes. After several cycles of rereading, coding, analyses, and conferencing, two themes emerged. A constant comparison method (Patton, 1990), the final step, aligned principal statements with the themes.

Participants were 82 principals from small and medium sized school districts with none having more than 9,999 students. Principals represented a convenience sample, accessible to the researchers, who agreed to participate with their identity remaining confidential. The typical size of the focus groups was five to seven principals. Schools ranged in enrollment from under 500 to almost 2500. Grade level configurations differed and five schools served students from prekindergarten through twelfth grades.


Theme 1: factors that affect decision-making

Communication is an important factor in the decision-making process. While principals voiced that communication of decision-making processes and outcomes was important for developing and maintaining trust, they did not share specific mechanisms for doing so. As an example, none identified email blasts, web pages, phone systems, blogs, town meetings, etc., as specific ways of sharing important content and processes of decisions. Elementary Principal 41 (Southwest/West, 10/11/2005) suggested the need, “…to have established avenues for the communication…” High School Principal 83 (Midwest, 6/18/2006) expressed that she shared how decisions are to be made, “…there has to be a communication on what is the method of decision that is going to being [ sic ] used. …”

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
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is it 3×y ?
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J, combine like terms 7x-4y
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I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 2 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11360/1.3
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