<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

New models of shared decision-making emerged since 2001 which provided specific structures for implementation. Researchers at the Center for Research in Educational Policy at the University of Memphis developed the Total Teamwork System (TTS), based on Vroom and Yetton’s original model. When teams used TTS the decisions were more acceptable. When not used, negative attributions were generated (Valesky, Horgan, Caughey,&Smith, 2003). Kepner-Tregoe (2004) emphasized that correctly identifying the problem to be addressed as an essential first step prior to data gathering, problem analysis, and solution generation. Another model published since 2001 is the synergistic decision-making model which focused on the need for communication skills: listening, responding, clarifying, and reinforcing-- all of which are necessary to facilitate shared decision-making (Lambert, 2004).


Using the same procedures and questions, 13 researchers and moderators led 13 focus groups from 2004 through 2006. Leadership questions around democratic community, school improvement, and social justice queried leaders concerning their practices and perceptions (Murphy, 2002). Each session’s protocol began with building rapport and asking questions, followed by summaries of key points (see Krueger&Casey, 2000). Recordings were made of the proceedings and transcribed verbatim.

Each of the three authors independently read all focus group transcripts (Denzin&Lincoln, 1994) noting participant comments, strands of thinking, and examples. Independent reading and analyses preceded conference calls to arrive at themes. After several cycles of rereading, coding, analyses, and conferencing, two themes emerged. A constant comparison method (Patton, 1990), the final step, aligned principal statements with the themes.

Participants were 82 principals from small and medium sized school districts with none having more than 9,999 students. Principals represented a convenience sample, accessible to the researchers, who agreed to participate with their identity remaining confidential. The typical size of the focus groups was five to seven principals. Schools ranged in enrollment from under 500 to almost 2500. Grade level configurations differed and five schools served students from prekindergarten through twelfth grades.


Theme 1: factors that affect decision-making

Communication is an important factor in the decision-making process. While principals voiced that communication of decision-making processes and outcomes was important for developing and maintaining trust, they did not share specific mechanisms for doing so. As an example, none identified email blasts, web pages, phone systems, blogs, town meetings, etc., as specific ways of sharing important content and processes of decisions. Elementary Principal 41 (Southwest/West, 10/11/2005) suggested the need, “…to have established avenues for the communication…” High School Principal 83 (Midwest, 6/18/2006) expressed that she shared how decisions are to be made, “…there has to be a communication on what is the method of decision that is going to being [ sic ] used. …”

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 2 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11360/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Education leadership review, volume 12, number 2 (october 2011)' conversation and receive update notifications?