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Final thoughts

Schools are the institutions expected to address deep-seated educational and social ills, from poor academic performance to violence to teenage pregnancy (Cuban&Usdan, 2002). Principals are the actors most likely to be held accountable for whether schools successfully attend to these difficult issues. Accordingly, in many major cities across the country, a message is being repeated, rhetorically as well as symbolically: Principals are fundamentally important to and ultimately responsible for school improvement and student achievement.

Under this prevailing logic, site-based principals are deemed accountable for a host of complex student challenges. The New York Times , for example, noted high rates of student absenteeism in some New York City schools and explained, “City officials said the responsibility for absenteeism lies chiefly with school principals, who are required by the state to submit attendance plans” (Medina, 2008, p. 2). In this instance, city officials may have symbolically distanced the Mayor from the student absentee issue, emphasizing it was a school-based problem, not a multifaceted economic, social, and cultural concern. The Times article quoted the Deputy Mayor, who explained, “You are going to have pockets of students and pockets of schools that have high rates of absence, and we can’t be afraid to go after that. Those principals will be held accountable for that” (Ibid.). The Deputy Mayor’s willingness to hold principals publicly accountable for student absenteeism may have signified city leaders’ willingness to improve schools and “fix” social problems no matter the tough actions required. By extension, such examples of the rhetoric and politics of urban principal accountability help ensure that principals are consistently positioned as ultimately responsible for solving vexing problems related to schools and students.

Urban school principal accountability is an attractive reform strategy with significant potential advantages. Notably, the demand for improved performance from principals may compel them to find new ways to elicit better results from staff and students (Ouchi, 2009). Moreover, given that individual schools are the standard unit for measuring academic performance under NCLB-related state accountability systems, it seems entirely appropriate that school district and reform leaders would focus on site-based leadership as a lynchpin for school improvement. Important questions regarding urban principal accountability remain, however. For instance, is putting principals’ “feet to the fire” through public rhetoric and symbols creating an uninviting image of the position, which may cause potentially good candidates to forgo pursuing the principalship? Also, can urban school district and reform leaders achieve an effective balance between directing tough talk and tough actions toward principals and providing encouragement, support, and stability principals need in order to effect enduring change? These are only some of the questions that we hope our study will inspire readers to consider and perhaps address in future writings.

Questions & Answers

how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 11, number 1; march 2010. OpenStax CNX. Feb 02, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11179/1.3
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