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This book is derived from three OpenStax resources: Biology, Concepts of Biology, and Anatomy and Physiology. It has been extensively edited so that the chapter order and content is appropriate for a non-majors human biology course.

Welcome to Human Biology , a textbook created utilizing OpenStax resources. This textbook has been created with several goals in mind: accessibility, customization, and student engagement—all while encouraging students toward high levels of academic scholarship. Students will find that this textbook offers a strong introduction to human biology in an accessible format.

About openstax college

OpenStax College is a non-profit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Their free textbooks are developed and peer-reviewed by educators to ensure they are readable, accurate, and meet the scope and sequence requirements of today’s college courses. Unlike traditional textbooks, OpenStax College resources live online and are owned by the community of educators using them. Through partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, OpenStax College is working to improve access to higher education for all. OpenStax College is an initiative of Rice University and is made possible through the generous support of several philanthropic foundations.

About openstax college's resources

OpenStax College resources provide quality academic instruction. Three key features set our materials apart from others: they can be customized by instructors for each class, they are a “living” resource that grows online through contributions from science educators, and they are available free or for minimal cost. The materials for this book were compiled and customized by Willy Cushwa, with valuable editorial assistance provided by Jamey Marsh. Please send any content suggestions and/or corrections to Willy Cushwa at wcushwa@clark.edu.

To broaden access and encourage community curation, our text books are “open source” licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license. The scientific community is invited to submit examples, emerging research, and other feedback to enhance and strengthen the material and keep it current and relevant for today’s students. Submit your suggestions to info@openstaxcollege.org, and check in on edition status, alternate versions, errata, and news on the StaxDash at http://openstaxcollege.org.

Cost

Our textbooks are available for free online, and in low-cost print and e-book editions.

About our team

Concepts of Biology would not be possible if not for the tremendous contributions of the authors and community reviewing team

Senior contributors

Samantha Fowler Clayton State University
Rebecca Roush Sandhills Community College
James Wise Hampton University

Faculty contributors and reviewers

Mark Belk Brigham Young University
Lisa Boggs Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Sherryl Broverman Duke University
David Byres Florida State College at Jacksonville
Aaron Cassill The University of Texas at San Antonio
Karen Champ College of Central Florida
Sue Chaplin University of St. Thomas
Diane Day Clayton State University
Jean DeSaix University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
David Hunnicutt St. Norbert College
Barbara Kuehner Hawaii Community College
Brenda Leady University of Toledo
Bernie Marcus Genesee Community College
Flora Mhlanga Lipscomb University
Madeline Mignone Dominican College
Elizabeth Nash Long Beach City College
Mark Newton San Jose City College
Diana Oliveras University of Colorado Boulder
Ann Paterson Williams Baptist College
Joel Piperberg Millersville University
Nick Reeves Mt. San Jacinto College
Ann Reisenauer San Jose State University
Lynn Rumfelt Gordon College
Michael Rutledge Middle Tennessee State University
Edward Saiff Ramapo College of New Jersey
Brian Shmaefsky Kingwood College
Gary Shultz Marshall University
Donald Slish SUNY Plattsburgh
Anh-Hue Tu Georgia Southwestern State University
Elena Zoubina Bridgewater State University

Questions & Answers

How many bones of 1 year childrean
R.k Reply
208
Rani
A baby's body has about 300 bones at birth. These eventually fuse (grow together) to form the 206 bones that adults
Manali
Somebudy seys me 300
R.k
A baby's body has about 300 bones at birth. These eventually fuse (grow together) to form the 206 bones that adults h
Manali
I ask you about beby bones
R.k
i cann't say about 1 year baby's bones bt on birth baby has 300 bones
Manali
Ok thank you goodnight
R.k
good night
Manali
have a sweat dream
Rani
it's 300 bones because it a baby
Jasper
figure of male reproduction
Rani Reply
front view of male reproductive system
Rani
front view of male reproductive system
Rani
what is Actin? I don't understand this definition
Rhonda Reply
Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments. 
Lauren
what is the difference between a vaccine and a antiserum
Silver Reply
An antiserum contains antibodies already produced and is used to pass on immune responses. A vaccine contains a substance that stimulates the production of antibodies to create an immune response.
Nana
A vaccine a preparation of antigens for one (or more) diseases that is given to stimulate active immunity and protect against the disease (s). while an antiserum either neutralizes the "infection " or stimulates your immune system to attack an infection.
Oliver
what is deoxyribonucleic acid
Carlene Reply
A negatively charged molecule; polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus of a cell ... DNA.
Abayomi
guys u needs your help i am in this conversation but i don't understand what you guys were talking about please i need your help.
Asali
Hi
Janelle
hi
Oliver
hello
Rani
how are you doing?
Jasper
DNA is genetic material which is present in cell DNA is made up of nitrogen base,phosphate group and pentose sugar.
Manali
hi
Jasper
give a front view of male reproductive system
Rani
to maintain certain biological activities of cell
jeeni Reply
what are difference between maleriya and dengue
Shaili Reply
caused by two different agents.. malaria is caused by Culex mosquito in birds and Anopheles in humans.. while dengue fever is caused by Aedes mosquito
Rayyan
what is oral pill
Rani
what is oral pilli
Rani
pili is hair like appendages found on cell surface and play important role in cause disease
Manali
correct
Jasper
what is immune system
Shaili Reply
system that defends the body against invading microbes n pathogens... (white blood cells makes immune system)
Rayyan
what is interferon's ?
maya Reply
interferon is any group of glycoproteins, produce by the immune system.
Henry
what is immune system
Shaili
immune system is the defence mechanism that protect our body to unwanted particles
Manali
the difference between human biology and principles of biology
Henry Reply
human biology is the studying of stucture and of function of the body and the principles of how humans interacts with men, animal and plants around them and the social activities that take place.
Kay-Anna
human biology is the studying of human body structures function in the way of interacting physical and internal. while biology is the study of living and non living things.
shanta
what is Mitosis/Meiosis? What are the similarities and differences?
Abayomi Reply
differences: occurence... one in somatic n other in germ cells no of daughter cells.. 2 and in meisis 4. genetic recombination... only occurs in meiosis during crossing over no. of chromosomes.. remains same in mitosis n reduced to half in meiosis major phases... similar karyokinesis n cytokinesis
Rayyan
karyokinesis... divided into prophase.. meta.. ana.. and telophase... in meiosis.. further division into meiosis 1 and meiosis11 so phases are named as pro1..meta1..ana1..and telo1
Rayyan
differences among phases.. prophase.. other changes similar.. but diff occur in meiosis where synapsis, crossing over,chiasmata formation and tetrad form metaphase... in mitosis chromosomes align at equatorial plate.. in meiosis homologouy chromosomes align at equatorial plate.
Rayyan
anaphase.. in mitosis chromatids gets separated in meiosis chromosomes gets separated.. meiosis 11 is similar to mitosis except that during interkinesis.. duplication in S phase doesnt occur
Rayyan
What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms
AAlfred Reply
Prokaryotic cell are unicellular, lacks a membrane bound organelles ... e.g bacteria and archea. Eukaryotic cells are multicellular, membrane bound organelles ... e.g Animals, Plants, Fungi, Algae.
Abayomi
in one line prokaryotic cell's nucleus is under develop and eukaryotic cell's nucleus is well develop
Manali
what are organelles
Lorella Reply
Organelles are specialized structures in the that perform a specific function. Examples: mitochondrial , Golgi apparatus, etc.
Francis
Organelles are specialized structures in the cell that perform a specific function. Examples: mitochondrial, ribosomes, etc.
Francis
what connect bone to bone
Rebecca Reply
ligaments
Abayomi
what is the function of appendix?
Isaya Reply
it don't have any function
Rebecca

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Source:  OpenStax, Human biology. OpenStax CNX. Dec 01, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11903/1.3
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