# 26.1 Body fluids and fluid compartments  (Page 2/14)

 Page 2 / 14

## Extracellular fluid

The ECF accounts for the other one-third of the body’s water content. Approximately 20 percent of the ECF is found in plasma. Plasma travels through the body in blood vessels and transports a range of materials, including blood cells, proteins (including clotting factors and antibodies), electrolytes, nutrients, gases, and wastes. Gases, nutrients, and waste materials travel between capillaries and cells through the IF. Cells are separated from the IF by a selectively permeable cell membrane that helps regulate the passage of materials between the IF and the interior of the cell.

The body has other water-based ECF. These include the cerebrospinal fluid that bathes the brain and spinal cord, lymph, the synovial fluid in joints, the pleural fluid in the pleural cavities, the pericardial fluid in the cardiac sac, the peritoneal fluid in the peritoneal cavity, and the aqueous humor of the eye. Because these fluids are outside of cells, these fluids are also considered components of the ECF compartment.

## Composition of body fluids

The compositions of the two components of the ECF—plasma and IF—are more similar to each other than either is to the ICF ( [link] ). Blood plasma has high concentrations of sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, and protein. The IF has high concentrations of sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate, but a relatively lower concentration of protein. In contrast, the ICF has elevated amounts of potassium, phosphate, magnesium, and protein. Overall, the ICF contains high concentrations of potassium and phosphate ( ${\text{HPO}}_{4}^{2-}$ ), whereas both plasma and the ECF contain high concentrations of sodium and chloride.

Watch this video to learn more about body fluids, fluid compartments, and electrolytes. When blood volume decreases due to sweating, from what source is water taken in by the blood?

Most body fluids are neutral in charge. Thus, cations, or positively charged ions, and anions, or negatively charged ions, are balanced in fluids. As seen in the previous graph, sodium (Na + ) ions and chloride (Cl - ) ions are concentrated in the ECF of the body, whereas potassium (K + ) ions are concentrated inside cells. Although sodium and potassium can “leak” through “pores” into and out of cells, respectively, the high levels of potassium and low levels of sodium in the ICF are maintained by sodium-potassium pumps in the cell membranes. These pumps use the energy supplied by ATP to pump sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell ( [link] ).

were can anatomy work
what is normal flora
it's one kind of bacteria
Tariq
the smallest blood vessel is capillary
How does deoxygenated blood become oxygenated during blood circulation?
Richard
plzzz explain cardiac cycle
what is anatomy
is the study of body structure
Amos
how types of tissue in body
mwiya
What are some of first questions are expected in anatomy and physiology course
what is pacemaker
mekfira
its a device that is put into the heart to make sure it beats properly
Michelle
SA node produces impulse is called pacemaker
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Khubaib
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IDDRISU
which of the following is the epithelial tissue that lines the interior of blood vessels?
endothelial tissues
Osaki
Endothelial tissue
mabast
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what is the function of the skeletal system?
Cris
what is the treatment of herpes simplex virus?
the long bone with two primary center's of ossification for shaft is ________
Aarambam
medulla
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Ravi
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Hani
doctor and nurse
Ravi
y 're the questions only 3
Chisom
women are much likely to be pregnant at which stage?
There are only six days during any cycle when a woman can get pregnant - the five days leading up to ovulation and the 24 hours after ovulation. This is because sperm can live for up to 5 days in a woman's body, and the ovum lives for only 12-24 hours.
THE
right
does this apply to women close to menopose
Kuria
what's reason the reason for BP growing ?
when after they have intercourse
AJ
what is andropause
It's the men version of menopause!
Catia
The testosterone levels decrease
Catia
what would happen if the sugar lever drops below the normal level
If our blood sugar drops below 70 mg/dL, we may have symptoms, such as feeling tired, weak, or shaky, become confused or drowsy or even lose consciousness and possibly die.
Dhanya
symptoms of hypoglycemia include: shakiness, dizziness, headache, confusion, rapid pulse rate, sweating, Hunger, etc.
EMERIBE
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Khubaib
You become dizzy and weak
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AJ
what is homeostasis
what is respiratory
Nikky
Respiratory is breathing
Atone
respiration is an exchange of gases (O2 & CO2) between the body and outside environment.
joey
homeostasis is internal balance.
Ali
Respiratory is system where the body takes in oxygen n releases carbondioxide
Hassan
respiratory system is a system where exhalation and inhalation takes place
Kom
1)inhalation: active diaphragm & external intercoastal muscles 2)exhalation: passive (allow muscle group to relax)
Shoukat
mantaince of body is called homeostasis
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Sakshi
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Khubaib
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Sakshi
Face ki he ethmoid bone
Rakesh
ethmoid bone. Irregularly shaped bone anterior to the solenoid. Forms the roof of the nasal cavity, upper nasal septum, and part of the medial orbit walls.
LaKecia
Its unpaired bone of skull that saprate the nasal cavity from the brain it's located at the roof of the nose between the two orbits it's bone is one of the bones that make up the orbit of eye.
SARFARAJ
sphenoid I meant
LaKecia
wrist joint ka dusra name kya he
Rakesh
till me fast my ans
Rakesh
Also included in the ethmoid bone is the crista galli and the cribriform plates. The plates help form the roof of the nasal cavity and the floor of the anterior cranial fossa.
LaKecia
the outer most covering of the brain ( the dura mater) attached to the crista galli and helps secure the brain in the cranial cavity
LaKecia
Sakshi Mishra. I hope that helped!
LaKecia
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Khubaib
synovial joint will have present in wrist
sk
what's the smallest blood vessal in the body?
sk
respiration is the process of inspiration an expiration
Bel
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sk
The protection of internal envirnment from the harm of external envirnmen is called as homeostasis.
Rana
Because stem cells have the unique ability to develop into any cell, stem cell therapy is being considered for treatment of kidney damage. What are your thoughts on stem cell treatment? Give at least three reasons for or against the treatment.