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Period = 2 π 2 ω = π ω = T 2

As time period of variation is half, the frequency of “U” is twice that of displacement. For this reason, potential energy – time plot is denser than that of displacement – time plot.

Mechanical energy

The basic requirement of SHM is that mechanical energy of the system is conserved. At any point or at any time of instant, the sum of potential and kinetic energy of the system in SHM is constant. This is substantiated by evaluating sum of two energies :

E = K + U

Using expressions involving displacement, we have :

E = 1 2 m ω 2 A 2 x 2 + 1 2 m ω 2 x 2 = 1 2 m ω 2 A 2

The plots of kinetic, potential and mechanical energy with respect to displacement are drawn in the figure. Note that the sum of kinetic and potential energy is always a constant, which is equal to the mechanical energy of the particle in SHM.

Mechanical energy - displacement plot

The sum of potential and kinetic energy is a constant.

We can also obtain expression of mechanical energy, using time dependent expressions of kinetic and potential energy as :

E = 1 2 m ω 2 A 2 cos 2 ω t + φ + 1 2 m ω 2 A 2 sin 2 ω t + φ

E = 1 2 m ω 2 A 2 { cos 2 ω t + φ + sin 2 ω t + φ } = 1 2 m ω 2 A 2

The mechanical energy – time plot is shown in the figure. We observe following important points about variation of energy with respect to time :

Mechanical energy - time plot

The sum of potential and kinetic energy is a constant.

  • Mechanical energy – time plot is a straight line parallel to time axis. This signifies that mechanical energy of particle in SHM is conserved.
  • There is transformation of energy between kinetic and potential energy during SHM.
  • At any instant, the sum of kinetic and potential energy is equal to 1 2 m ω 2 A 2 or 1 2 k A 2 , which is equal to maximum values of either kinetic or potential energy.

Example

Problem 1: The potential energy of an oscillating particle of mass “m” along straight line is given as :

U x = a + b x c 2

The mechanical energy of the oscillating particle is “E”.

  • Determine whether oscillation is SHM?
  • If oscillation is SHM, then find amplitude and maximum kinetic energy.

Solution : If the motion is SHM, then restoring force is a conservative force. The potential energy is, then, defined such that :

U = - F x

F = U x = - 2 b x c

In order to find the center of oscillation, we put F = 0.

F = - 2 b x - c = 0 x c = 0 x = c

This means that particle is oscillating about point x = c. The displacement of the particle in that case is “x-c” – not “x”. This, in turn, means that force is proportional to negative of displacement, “x-c”. Hence, particle is executing SHM.

Alternatively, put y = x-c :

F = - 2 b y

This means that particle is executing SHM about y = 0. This means x-c = 0, which in turn, means that particle is executing SHM about x = c.

The mechanical energy is related to amplitude by the relation :

E = 1 2 m ω 2 A 2

A = 2 E m ω 2

Now, m ω 2 = k = 2 b . Hence,

A = 2 E 2 b = E b

The potential energy is minimum at the center of oscillation i.e. when x = c. Putting this value in the expression of potential energy, we have :

U min = a + b c - c 2 = a

It is important to note that minimum value of potential energy need not be zero. Now, kinetic energy is maximum, when potential energy is minimum. Hence,

K max = E U min = E a

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Oscillation and wave motion. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10493/1.12
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