<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
= Movement or the ability to move from one place to another.
Human locomotion
= the ability you have to move from one place to another ( walking from your house to a friend’s)

Harvard Outreach: Leg mechanics of playing basketball:


What is used during locomotion?

1) bones - body’s Supporting structure

  • provide the framework
  • provide internal core structure for the attachment of muscles.
  • Protection of human organs
  • Keeps body shape

2) joints - place in your body Where two bones are connected

Three types of joints in your body:

I) fibrous joints

  • join bones where no movement is allowed
  • An example will be the bones of your cranium (the skull).

Ii) cartilaginous joints

  • allows slight, restricted movement
  • for example the discs between the vertebrae of the spine

Iii) synovial joints

  • Allow free movement in one or more directions to the joints of the pelvic and pectoral girdles.
  • These joints facilitate movements like standing, sitting, walking and running.

Ii) cartilaginous joints

  • allows slight, restricted movement
  • for example the discs between the vertebrae of the spine

Iii) synovial joints

  • Allow free movement in one or more directions to the joints of the pelvic and pectoral girdles.
  • These joints facilitate movements like standing, sitting, walking and running.

Iii) synovial joints

  • Allow free movement in one or more directions to the joints of the pelvic and pectoral girdles.
  • These joints facilitate movements like standing, sitting, walking and running.

3) ligaments – connect bone and bone.

  • Hold bone in place so that they work in a coordinated manner.

4) tendons - connect muscles to bone.

  • Attachment to the skeletal muscles move your bones
  • Facilitate the various positions of the body related to movement and balance.

5) antagonistic muscles

  • Antagonistic = ‘opposite’
  • Antagonistic movement of muscles
  • at least two sets of muscles
  • one set contracts and the other relaxes
  • Contraction = stimulated muscle – becomes shorter and thicker
  • Relaxation = muscle relaxes

Example: biceps and triceps

  • The biceps is an example of a flexor muscle (muscle whose contraction shortens a body part)
  • Whereas the triceps is an example of an extensor muscle (muscle whose contraction extends or stretches a body part).
  • Note that voluntary muscles are normally connected to at least two bones.

In the case of the biceps the two bones involved are the scapula and the humerus

  • When the biceps muscle contracts only one of the bones moves ( in this case the radius). The point of attachment to the movable bone is called the point of insertion and the biceps is attached to this point by a single tendon. So when the biceps contracts the forearm is lifted or bent, decreasing the angle between the forearm and humerus. and flexing your arm, Thus the biceps is a flexor muscle
  • The biceps muscle gets its name from having two tendons attached to the scapula. The resistance. of these two tendons prevents the contractile force of thebiceps from moving the scapula and therefore there is no movement of the bone..
  • The point of attachment of a muscle to the immovable bone is called the point of origin.

Figure 2.2.1: Illustration of the triceps (extensor muscle) and biceps muscles (flexor muscle). Found in http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anatomy_and_physiology_of_animals_Antagon istic_muscles,_flexion%26tension.jpg

Straightening of the forearm

  • When the arm is bent the biceps cannot contract as it is already in a contracted state as muscles can only cause movement by pulling as they contract not by pushing when they relax.
  • Therefore the straightening of the arm is brought about by the contraction of the triceps muscle which is an extensor muscle as it increases the angle between forearm and humerus
  • The triceps has three points of origin, two on the humerus and one on the scapula, and a single point of insertion on the ulna.


Video illustrating the mechanics of the antagonism within the biceps and triceps.


Antagonistic muscles:


Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Comment on the ozone depletion over the period of 1982 to 1996
Mpho Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula: life sciences grade 10. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11410/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Siyavula: life sciences grade 10' conversation and receive update notifications?