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English home language

Grade 6

Module 17

Direct and indirect speech

(The actual words a person says/speaks)

  • Study the examples below.

These examples demonstrate two ways of writing direct speech:

Many court cases involving young children collapse because the youngsters are unable to testify competently in the intimidating surroundings of a court set-up.

Even with the introduction of closed circuit cameras, which relay testimony from a room adjacent to the court, the thought of testifying to a courtroom filled with official-looking adults in black Batman-like garb is daunting to many minors.

At Cape Town’s Tygerberg Hospital, the TygerBear Social Work Unit for Traumatised Children aims to assist children in making the court experience less frightening, whether they’re witnesses or victims.

Here young children who have to testify in special courts for sexual offences involving minors and older ones who testify in open court are taught to view their participation in a trial as helpful to the judicial process.

In the colourful space, which is home to the unit, social workers use teddy bears, sketches, puppets and other tools to introduce the legal system to the children.

And through this play therapy children become more and more accustomed to what they at first considered a harrowing experience.

Social worker Judith Booysen said children often felt as if they were the guilty parties when questioned by lawyers.

“It is important for children to know that their evidence is part of the trial and whatever they say will not be the only factor deciding the outcome of the case. They are not responsible for the sentence handed down by the court.

“They’re easily frightened by official-looking adults who speak a language (legalese) they don’t understand.

“This, together with questions asked by the defence, can break down their testimony and they start answering incorrectly because they’re frightened.”

Children under 18 in need of such court preparation are referred to the unit by public prosecutors.

“We receive about 50 referrals for court preparation a month. Children are taught that court staff have a job to do and by testifying the children will help them with that job.

“We also empower them to speak up in court and to tell the facts as they know them,” Booysen said.

Social workers use sketches and puppetry to familiarise children with the inside of the court and where each official sits and what their roles are.

“This already makes the child feel more comfortable.”

She said that because social workers liased with the police and therefore knew the facts of each child’s case, they knew how to deal with each particular child.

“We don’t tell them what to say. We rather encourage them to tell the truth.

“Our programme is very successful and it has been proven that a child can’t go to court unprepared. It is intimidating enough for an adult to testify,” Booysen said.

The unit also runs a group court preparation programme.

The unit’s head, Manette de Jager, said: “We desperately need sponsorship to sustain the programme. Some of the children don’t have money for transport and we have to acquire new equipment all the time.”

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, English home language grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 07, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10997/1.1
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