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Left to right: White House Economic Advisor Lawrence Summers, Jane Lubchenco, and Steven Chu at the National Academy, February 27, 2009. Courtesy of the National Academy of Sciences.

The american recovery and reinvestment act

On February 17, 2009, Obama signed into law the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (commonly known as the stimulus package). The approximately $800 billion package contained more than $30 billion for science and technology, with investments in clean energy, education, basic research, health care, broadband communications, infrastructure, and medical discoveries. Specific R&D increases included:

  • National Science Foundation: $3 billion, including $2.5 billion for research and related activities, $400 million for major research equipment and facilities, and $100 million for improving instruction in science, math and engineering.
  • National Institutes of Health: $10 billion, including $1.3 billion for the National Center for Research Resources ($1 billion of this for competitive awards, construction and renovation of extramural research facilities); $8.2 billion to the Office of the Director ($7.4 billion for Institutes and Centers and Common Fund); and $500 million for repair and improvement of NIH buildings and facilities.
  • Department of Energy: $0.4 billion, including $16.8 million for energy efficiency, renewable energy sources and batteries, and $1.6 million for science programs.
  • ARPA-E: $400 million for high-risk, high-payoff research into energy sources and energy efficiency.
  • NASA: $1 billion, including $400 million for science, $150 million for aeronautics, and $400 million for exploration.
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology: $600 million, including $220 million for research, competitive grants fellowships and equipment, and $360 million for maintenance and construction of NIST facilities.
  • U.S. Geological Survey: $140 million for surveys, investigations and research.
  • Department of Defense: $300 million for research, testing and evaluation.

Energy initiatives

The development of clean, alternative, sustainable energy sources was accorded an early high priority by the Obama administration. To this end, solicitation for ARPA-E’s first round of funding awards was made in April 2009; the following October, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu announced the first thirty-seven awards. The lead researchers were in seventeen states, 43 percent of the awardees were small businesses, 35 percent were educational institutions, and 19 percent were large corporations. American Institute of Physics Bulletin of Science Policy News (November 9, 2009). That December, Chu announced a second round of awards in three categories: Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies; Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation; and Electrofuels. Ibid., December 10, 2009. Chu also announced a new ARPA-E fellowship program to enable qualified scientists and engineers to spend up to two years working in relevant federal agencies.

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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