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Left to right: White House Economic Advisor Lawrence Summers, Jane Lubchenco, and Steven Chu at the National Academy, February 27, 2009. Courtesy of the National Academy of Sciences.

The american recovery and reinvestment act

On February 17, 2009, Obama signed into law the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (commonly known as the stimulus package). The approximately $800 billion package contained more than $30 billion for science and technology, with investments in clean energy, education, basic research, health care, broadband communications, infrastructure, and medical discoveries. Specific R&D increases included:

  • National Science Foundation: $3 billion, including $2.5 billion for research and related activities, $400 million for major research equipment and facilities, and $100 million for improving instruction in science, math and engineering.
  • National Institutes of Health: $10 billion, including $1.3 billion for the National Center for Research Resources ($1 billion of this for competitive awards, construction and renovation of extramural research facilities); $8.2 billion to the Office of the Director ($7.4 billion for Institutes and Centers and Common Fund); and $500 million for repair and improvement of NIH buildings and facilities.
  • Department of Energy: $0.4 billion, including $16.8 million for energy efficiency, renewable energy sources and batteries, and $1.6 million for science programs.
  • ARPA-E: $400 million for high-risk, high-payoff research into energy sources and energy efficiency.
  • NASA: $1 billion, including $400 million for science, $150 million for aeronautics, and $400 million for exploration.
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology: $600 million, including $220 million for research, competitive grants fellowships and equipment, and $360 million for maintenance and construction of NIST facilities.
  • U.S. Geological Survey: $140 million for surveys, investigations and research.
  • Department of Defense: $300 million for research, testing and evaluation.

Energy initiatives

The development of clean, alternative, sustainable energy sources was accorded an early high priority by the Obama administration. To this end, solicitation for ARPA-E’s first round of funding awards was made in April 2009; the following October, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu announced the first thirty-seven awards. The lead researchers were in seventeen states, 43 percent of the awardees were small businesses, 35 percent were educational institutions, and 19 percent were large corporations. American Institute of Physics Bulletin of Science Policy News (November 9, 2009). That December, Chu announced a second round of awards in three categories: Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies; Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation; and Electrofuels. Ibid., December 10, 2009. Chu also announced a new ARPA-E fellowship program to enable qualified scientists and engineers to spend up to two years working in relevant federal agencies.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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