# 0.6 Physical and chemical change  (Page 4/7)

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${\mathrm{AgNO}}_{3}$ stains the skin. Be careful when working with it or use gloves.

## Method:

1. Place a small amount of wax from a birthday candle into a test tube and heat it over the bunsen burner until it melts. Leave it to cool.
2. Add a small spatula of $\mathrm{NaCl}$ to 5 ml water in a test tube and shake. Then use the pipette to add 10 drops of ${\mathrm{AgNO}}_{3}$ to the sodium chloride solution. NOTE: Please be careful ${\mathrm{AgNO}}_{3}$ causes bad stains!!
3. Take a 5 cm piece of magnesium ribbon and tear it into 1 cm pieces. Place two of these pieces into a test tube and add a few drops of $6\phantom{\rule{2pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{M}\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{HCl}$ . NOTE: Be very careful when you handle this acid because it can cause major burns.
4. Take about 0,5 g iron filings and 0,5 g sulphur. Test each substance with a magnet. Mix the two samples in a test tube and run a magnet alongside the outside of the test tube.
5. Now heat the test tube that contains the iron and sulphur. What changes do you see? What happens now, if you run a magnet along the outside of the test tube?
6. In each of the above cases, record your observations.

## Questions:

Decide whether each of the following changes are physical or chemical and give a reason for your answer in each case. Record your answers in the table below:
 Description Physical or chemical change Reason melting candle wax dissolving $\mathrm{NaCl}$ mixing $\mathrm{NaCl}$ with ${\mathrm{AgNO}}_{3}$ tearing magnesium ribbon adding $\mathrm{HCl}$ to magnesium ribbon mixing iron and sulphur heating iron and sulphur

## Energy changes in chemical reactions

All reactions involve some change in energy. During a physical change in matter, such as the evaporation of liquid water to water vapour, the energy of the water molecules increases. However, the change in energy is much smaller than in chemical reactions.

When a chemical reaction occurs, some bonds will break , while new bonds may form . Energy changes in chemical reactions result from the breaking and forming of bonds. For bonds to break , energy must be absorbed . When new bonds form , energy will be released because the new product has a lower energy than the `in between' stage of the reaction when the bonds in the reactants have just been broken.

In some reactions, the energy that must be absorbed to break the bonds in the reactants is less than the total energy that is released when new bonds are formed. This means that in the overall reaction, energy is released . This type of reaction is known as an exothermic reaction. In other reactions, the energy that must be absorbed to break the bonds in the reactants is more than the total energy that is released when new bonds are formed. This means that in the overall reaction, energy must be absorbed from the surroundings. This type of reaction is known as an endothermic reaction. Most decomposition reactions are endothermic and heating is needed for the reaction to occur. Most synthesis reactions are exothermic, meaning that energy is given off in the form of heat or light.

More simply, we can describe the energy changes that take place during a chemical reaction as:

Total energy absorbed to break bonds - Total energy released when new bonds form

So, for example, in the reaction...

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