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This module details the primary three algorithms explored for encoding digital data in audio as part of the fall 2008 ELEC 301 class project.


Our three encoding algorithms all begin the same way. First we take the user-defined constant for the number of segments and split the input signal in the time domain. Each segment represents a possible bit of hidden data. More segments mean more bits and a higher data rate, but it also means fewer samples from which to decode.

Whenever we wish to encode a one we alter the time chunk according to the algorithm. To encode a zero we leave the segment alone. After altering (or not altering) each segment, we take the Inverse Fourier Transform if needed and recombine them into our marked ŝ(t).

Frequency-masking algorithm (fma)

In this algorithm we take advantage of frequency masking. Since the human ear cannot hear quieter frequencies next to a louder frequency, we alter these values. To encode a one we find the Fourier Transform for each segment of time and find the max value of this transform. Then we scale the neighboring values on either side by some scalar α<1.

The case where the max value is close to the edge of our segment is slightly more complicated. We chose to alter the values on the non-edge side as normal and to alter as many samples on the edge side as existed.

We cannot encode a bit if the maximum value is zero or if the neighboring frequencies are too small (according to some predefined value).

Testing revealed that α = .5 was clearly audible for all of our test files, but α =.95 was not enough of a difference for the computer to reliably detect.

Diagram of frequency encoding algorithm

Diagram of Frequency Encoding Algorithm

Example of a change made by the fma

Example of a change made by the FMA to encode a 1

Phase-shifting algorithm (psa)

In this algorithm we take advantage of the fact that the human ear cannot hear slight variations in phase. To encode a one we find the Fourier Transform of each time segment and slightly alter the phase by a predefined value.

We cannot encode a bit if most of the values are zero.

Testing revealed that a phase shift of .25π is audible, while a phase shift of .001π became hard for the computer to detect.

Diagram of phase encoding algorithm

Diagram of Phase Encoding Algorithm

Example of a change made by the psa

Example of a change made by the PSA to encode a 1

Echo algorithm (ea)

Here we use the fact that our test suit is comprised of music and already have some amount of echo. Adding a slight amount more does not make an audible difference. To encode a one we shift the segment by some predefined value, de-amplify it by some scalar α<1, and add this echo back to the original segment.

We cannot encode a bit if most of the values are zero.

Testing revealed that an echo de-amplified to .2 was audible, while a de-amplification by .0001 was not reliably detected. Also a 30 sample delayed echo was inaudible to the human ear.

Diagram of echo encoding algorithm

Diagram of Echo Encoding Algorithm

Example of a change made by the ea

Example of a change made by the EA to encode a 1

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
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Commplementary angles
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
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or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
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Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
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In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
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silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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Source:  OpenStax, Elec 301 projects fall 2008. OpenStax CNX. Jan 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10633/1.1
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