# 0.10 Electric circuits

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The amount of work done to move a charge from one point to another point in a circuit is called the potential difference between those two points. You can think of it as a difference in the potential energy of the charge due to its position in the circuit. The difference in potential energy, called potential difference, is equal to the amount of work done to move the charge between the two points.Just like with gravity, when you raise an object above the ground it has gravitational potential energy due to its position, the same goes for a charge in a circuit and electrical potential energy. Potential difference is measured between or across two points. We do not say potential difference through something.

Potential Difference

Electrical potential difference is the difference in electrical potential energy per unit charge between two points. The unit of potential difference is the volt named after the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745–1827) (V). The potential difference of a battery is the voltage measured across it when current is flowing through it.

The unit of potential difference is the volt (V), which is the same as 1 joule per coulomb, the amount of work done per unit charge. Electrical potential difference is also called voltage.

## Potential difference and emf

We use an instrument called a voltmeter to measure the potential difference between two points in a circuit. It must be connected across the two points, in parallel to that portion of the circuit as shown in the diagram below.

## Emf

When you use a voltmeter to measure the potential difference across (or between) the terminals of a battery, when no current is flowing through the battery, you are measuring the electromotive force (emf) of the battery. This is how much potential energy the battery has to make charges move through the circuit. It is a measure of how much chemical potential energy can be transferred to electrical energy in the battery. This driving potential energy is equal to the total potential energy drops in the circuit. This means that the voltage across the battery is equal to the sum of the voltages in the circuit.

emf
The emf (electromotive force) is the voltage measured across the terminals of a battery when no current is flowing through the battery.

You have now learnt that the emf is the voltage measured across the terminals of a battery when there is no current flowing through it and that the potential difference of a battery is the voltage measured across it when there is current flowing through it. So how do these two quantities compare with each other?

## Aim:

To measure the emf and potential difference across a battery in a circuit

## Apparatus:

A battery, connecting wires, a light bulb, a switch, a voltmeter.

## Method:

Set up a circuit with a battery, a lightbulb and a switch connected in series.

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can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
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Salomon
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Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
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Sherica
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Sherica
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Tamia
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Uday
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Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
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China
Cied
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Porter
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Porter
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Yasmin
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Cesar
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Uday
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Stotaw
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Azam
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Azam
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Damian
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Azam
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Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
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