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Ekonomiese en bestuurswetenskappe

Graad 8

Die ekonomiese siklus

Module 3

Ekonomiese stelsels

  • BY VOLTOOING VAN HIERDIE AFDELING SAL JY KAN VERDUIDELIK HOE VERSKILLENDE EKONOMIESE STELSELS DIE EKONOMIESE PROBLEEM AANSPREEK. (Byvoorbeeld die beplande-, markgerigte en gemengde ekonomie.)

Die kernvraagstuk wat deur die mensdom in hul alledaagse bestaan opgelos moet word, is om hul BEHOEFTES TE BEVREDIG met die SKAARS MIDDELE tot hul beskikking, met ander woorde hoe moet die skaars hulpbronne aangewend word om so veel as moontlik behoeftes te kan bevredig. In die proses moet deurlopend antwoorde gevind word op die volgende vrae:

  • WAT moet geproduseer word?
  • HOE moet daar geproduseer word?
  • VIR WIE moet daar geproduseer word?
  • Omdat verskillende lande (volke) van mekaar verskil ten opsigte van gewoontes, smake, kultuur en voorkeure, is dit onwaarskynlik dat alle volke in die aanwending van hul bronne op dieselfde wyse sal reageer, op die vrae hierbo genoem, ten einde hul behoeftes te bevredig. So byvoorbeeld is sekere volke meer geneig om hul besittings met mekaar te deel tot almal se voordeel, terwyl daar in ander volke weer diegene is wat “mag” en “rykdom” selfsugtig vir hulself wil toe-eien, ongeag wat met die res gebeur. Die wyse waarop mense in hul denke en optrede gelei word, sal bepaal hoe die antwoorde op die vrae hierbo gevind sal word. So word ‘n bepaalde EKONOMIESE STELSEL dan ontwikkel wat bepaalde antwoorde vir die verloop van die ekonomiese proses moet verskaf.

‘n EKONOMIESE STELSEL behels dus dat daar sekere instellings of reëls is wat die prosesse van produksie, verbruik en verspreiding reguleer, en dat in die verloop / ontplooiing van die proses kenmerkende eienskappe ontstaan wat die verskillende STELSELS van mekaar onderskei. Ten einde die EKONOMIESE STELSELS van mekaar te onderskei, moet daar op die volgende ONDERSKEIDENDE EIENSKAPPE antwoorde verskaf word:

  • Hoe of deur wie word die besluite geneem?
  • Wat is die aansporing of dryfkrag agter die neem van die besluite?
  • Hoe is die besitreg met betrekking tot die hulpbronne vir produksie gereël?
  • Hoe of deur wie word die aktiwiteite van die produsente en verbruikers gereël?

Op grond van bogenoemde kan die volgende TWEE ekonomiese stelsels onderskei word:

MARKGERIGTE STELSEL (KAPITALISME) BEPLANDE STELSEL (KOMMUNISME)(Verwys na bostaande)
  1. Besluite deur private indiwidue geneem.
Besluite geneem volgens sentrale plan van owerheid.
  1. ‘n Strewe na die hoogs moontlike wins. ‘
‘n Strewe na die beste belang vir die gemeenskap.
  1. Private besit van produktiewe bronne.
Gesamentlike besit van produktiewe bronne.
D.Aktiwiteite gereël deur vraag en aanbod. Aktiwiteite gereël deur sentrale beplanners.

Aktiwiteit 1

LU 1.3

KAPITALISME / KOMMUNISME

Verduidelik jou groep se mening oor die betekenis van punte A - D met betrekking tot die praktiese situasie wat deur die ekonomiese struktuur in ‘n land meegebring word.

DIENS WIE VOORSIEN / BEPLAN INSTANSIE(S)
Telekommunikasie
Vervoer
Elektrisiteit
Wapentuig
Watertoevoer
Sanitasie, riool- en vullisverwydering
  • In die KAPITALISME, wat ook as die VRYEMARKSTELSEL bekend staan, val die klem op private besit van eiendom, afhanklikheid van die werking van die markmeganisme (vraag en aanbod), sowel as die beginsel van eiebelang en die voortdurende soeke na wins. In die KOMMUNISME, wat ook as die SENTRAAL-BEPLANDE STELSEL bekend staan, val die klem op staatsbesit van produksiemiddele en die afhanklikheid van ’n sentrale plan van die owerheid. Laasgenoemde stelsel is daarop gerig dat die belange van die gemeenskap swaarder moet weeg as die belang van die indiwidu en dat produksie en verbruik eerder op gelyke verspreiding van goedere as op wins ingestel behoort te wees.
  • Op hierdie stadium moet egter gemeld word dat bogenoemde ekonomiese stelsels in hul “suiwer” vorm nêrens in die wêreld voorkom nie. Meesal word gevind dat lande hul ekonomieë in twee sektore verdeel, naamlik sekere beslissings word aan die markmeganisme oorgelaat en ander aan sentrale beplanning. So kan die beste uit die twee stelsels dus benut word. Wanneer die twee stelsels so saam gebruik word, staan dit bekend as ‘n GEMENGDE EKONOMIESE STELSEL. In Suid-Afrika het ons ook ‘n gemengde ekonomiese stelsel, waar sommige ekonomiese funksies deur private indiwidue (private sektor) verrig word en ander funksies deur die staat en ander owerhede (die openbare sektor).

Aktiwiteit 2

LU 1.3

GEMENGDE EKONOMIESE STELSEL VAN SUID-AFRIKA

Dui in die tabel aan watter van die onderstaande funksies in die Suid-Afrikaanse ekonomie deur die private sektor voorsien word en watter deur die sentrale owerheid. Dui ook aan wat die instansies genoem word wat die dienste voorsien.

DIENS WIE VOORSIEN / BEPLAN INSTANSIE(S)
Telekommunikasie
Vervoer
Elektrisiteit
Wapentuig
Watertoevoer
Sanitasie, riool- en vullisverwydering
Mediese dienste
Veiligheidsdienste

Assessering

Leeruitkomstes(LUs)
LU 1
DIE EKONOMIESE KRINGLOOPDie leerder sal in staat wees om kennis en begrip van die ekonomiese siklus binne die konteks van ‘die ekonomiese’ probleem te toon.
Assesseringstandaarde(ASe)
Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder:
  • 1.1 die historiese ontwikkeling van geld en die rol daarvan in samelewings en hul ekonomieë kan beskryf;
  • 1.2 die wyse kan bespreek waarop handel (invoer en uitvoer) die ekonomiese probleem (keuse- en geleentheidskoste) aanspreek, asook die rol van banke in belegging in die ekonomie;
  • 1.3 kan verduidelik hoe verskillende ekonomiese sisteme die ekonomiese probleem aanspreek (bv beplande, mark- en gemengde ekonomieë);
  • 1.4 die rol, regte en verantwoordelikhede van vakbonde kan bespreek; (en)
  • 1.5 kan verduidelik wat inflasie is en redes vir veranderinge in die inflasiekoerse kan bespreek.

Questions & Answers

If humans have evolved biologically [like their skulls,jaws etc],so how can we apply animal psychology to humans? They must have evolved their minds...even one exception is enough to contradict....
abid Reply
yes
Petros
do you have suggestions for learning Darwin's theory of evolution....beginner+interactive
abid
what's the fugue state
jody Reply
is this a private messege or a chat room? i didnt even know you could messege on this app...
Skylar
I'm confused
Hailey
same
Manav
me too
davie
Same here. Not satisfactory user interface here.
Swati
hi
Melandi
Dissociative fugue, formerly fugue state or psychogenic fugue, is a dissociative disorder and a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by reversible amnesia for personal identity, including the memories, personality, and other identifying characteristics of individuality. Thestate can last days,
Skylar
months or longer
Skylar
skyler can you please elaborate it ?
ecstasy
what is memory
Khushbu Reply
what is the meaning of memory
Khushbu
what is the meaning of memory?
Khushbu
what is the meaning of memory?
Khushbu
cognitive process whereby we remember past experiences
Annie
to aid in survival
Eleni
Storing information about people, places, and experiences. Both good and bad, in order to recall and make decisions.
andrew
Memory is the process by which we encode ,store, and retrieve information from the environment through different sense organs.
aijaz
the encryption-decryption mechanism of our psychophysical experiences
juan
can anyone suggest me good coaching in Indore MP India for m.a entrance of du psychology
SAMKIT Reply
How can one diagnose a patient with a mental disorder such as schizophrenia?
Kutwal Reply
Making the Diagnosis. To get an official diagnosi of schizophrenia, your loved one has to show at least two of the following symptom most of the time for a month, and some mental disturbance over six months: Delusions (false beliefs that the person won't give up, even when they get proof that they'r
Khajiit
they're not ture)
Khajiit
Can sombody write me here about Pinoccio in psychodynamic perspective?
Amina Reply
what is the nature and nurture perspective of personality?
Khan Reply
are there significant differences between methamphetamine and it's long term effects on male cognitive behavioral and function versus female?
Shiloh Reply
effects will be the same( male & female)
Smith
tell me more
baby
no. it's much worse on females. almost s complete polar switch
cody
show me ans fast plzzz
Khushbu
please is there any difference between abnormal behaviour and normal behaviour?
Ayodele Reply
hm
sheere
yes abnormal behavior is "not normal ", actions in society's eyes. an example of abnormal behavior (I remember from a textbook) ; a man who runs around frantically in a grocery store licking strangers'(women's) shoes because when he was a baby his mom would tickle his feet/give them special attentio
Peter
yes there is a difference between abnormal and normal behaviour... This is simply because abnormal behaviour is deviating from the normal behaviour of the society while normal behaviour is obeying the moral standards in the society.
Emmanuel
how about disorders? like, always having a tantrums and irrational most of the time?
Jheannalyn
a behavior becomes pathological when 1. there is a before and after : you can see a real change of behavior/cognition or 2. behavior is pathological when it makes yourself or others suffer
Perle
what is difference between disease and disorder
Shahab
disease demand medicin but disorder demands care plus medicin
Zeeshan
I think the concept of normal and abnormal behavior in general is not much of psychological concept but more of sociological concept. A behavior or act in itself is not normal or abnormal. How society perceives that specific behavior, that's what decides what's normal.
Juveriya
For instance, gay marriage is considered normal where homosexuality is legalized. Where it isn't legalized, its abnormal.
Juveriya
So there cannot be an absolute answer for your question
Juveriya
well abnormality is pretty much considered in popular society which is something of a correlation of psycholigical perspective reflected through activity... something abstract... or non trending or precedented. or maybe something disturbing or atypical for people in their respective birth cohorts.
Geoffrey
please what are the schools of thought in psychology
Jennifer
if I told a girl that I will marry her how will she takes it when am to rate it in percentages
dauda
structuralism,functionalism,gestaltalism etc
aijaz
what about Diathesis stress model ?
aijaz
What is the difference between motivation and goal?
vishal Reply
goal is what you want to accomplish. motivation is what drives you to achieve it
Tay
motivation is ambitious and a goal is a ambition
Alivia
But Motivation is just stay there for only short time
Manish
goal is our destination and motivation is a vehicle to reach goal
pradeep
motivation is the One person improved in self development another person advices......... goal is achievement at one of the life.....
thangaraj
motivation is for our personality development thing but goal is our whole personality.
Zeeshan
but its should be more remember without motivation no life no goal .
Zeeshan
it's like this
Tay
if my goal is to get my degree. then me wanting a better job is my motivation. ultimately family
Tay
Motivation is the vehicle we use to reach our goal.
Zachary
Please wat r the schools of psychology
Jennifer
i want the outline of it,its methodology
Jennifer
hi guys can someone help me how can I over or stress ?
Folet
Jennifer I need to take my own advice however stress relief is something that is done through catharsis which in my estimation is defined as a physical or mental activity used as therapy... that can include, yoga, meditation, sex, physical activity like a sport or martial art practice or sometimes .
Geoffrey
the schools of psych I have no clue about
Geoffrey
If you want to be something ,that we can say you have goal.But you will never be that without enough effort,if you getting accurate rewards from your surrounding as accepting you than before when you are trying to be something.that we can say motivation.it may be in the form of acceptance and suport
Hot
motiVation is the part of goal . but it has a backbone value for goal .with out motivation wo can not Think about our aim of life, our goals .
Zeeshan
how do you get motivation? I'm such a lax person
Alexsus
can anyone help me we have a school in a third world country the kids are unable to learn, how can we help them motivate?
Cesaire
make it a game , if it's a 3rd world country then personal hygiene supplies would be a good prize to win
Maria
Maria can you explain that a little more
Cesaire
make them a set goal of so many pages to read or assigments to accomplish and go buy soap, toothpaste and toothbrush or even Candy and put it in front of the class so everyone can see the prizes and it will motivate them to finish first to get an award
Maria
ok
Cesaire
ok Maria
Cesaire
Motivation - reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way. Goal - The object of a person's ambition or effort; an aim or desired result.
andrew
what is mutation?
Amaya Reply
What is mindfulness
rahul
mindfulness means to be aware of the present
Agnieszka
meaning that you are totally focussing on the present...and living in the moment
Agnieszka
also present variables
Carl
hello guys
Folet
can someone help with few answers ?
Folet
hi what is all about ?
Folet Reply
The theory of evolution and its natural selection is a given trait by respond it is also classical conditioning it is a given trait that makes humans more unique than any other species of animals plants or an the theory o the Big Bang is a spontaneous person and has expanded ev we do not know that m
Ryan Reply
hi
Cesaire
hi
yugandhar
behaviors are most successful in treating what?
Cody Reply
mental health disorders
Joyce
Please guys am about to begin my project, I'd love suggestions on topics I can possibly take up.
Anigwe Reply
What are your guide lines
Sarah
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Source:  OpenStax, Ekonomiese en bestuurswetenskappe graad 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11039/1.1
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