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Back to Europe: A.D. 101 to 200

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands |greece | upper balkans

This entire area was an integral part of the Roman Empire and was administered in three parts: The Dacian diocese, comprised of eastern Yugoslavia, western Bulgaria, Moesia Superior, Dacia and some smaller areas; the Macedonian diocese consisting chiefly of Greece; and the Thracian diocese, which was made up of eastern Bulgaria and the European part of Turkey, which in turn, included Lower Moesia, Scythia, Thrace, etc. Of these only Dacia used the Latin language, while the others all spoke Greek. The Goths arrived in the Black Sea area by A.D. 214 and soon occupied all the region west of this sea, splitting into two divisions, to be known as Ostrogoths (East Goths) and Visigoths (West Goths). They battled the Romans in this area throughout the century and the Roman Emperor Decius was slain by them in Dacia as the Romans withdrew in A.D. 275 to safety south of the Danube. Many native Dacians took to the hills with their Latin language, to reappear centuries later as ancestors of the modern Romanians. Gallus, a former legate of Moesia (chiefly the area of Bulgaria), became emperor of Rome in 251. In 268 Claudius II (Gothicus) became the first of a series of emperors from Illyria. They were a capable group and prepared the way for Diocletian. (Ref. 127 , 206 , 48 )


Although already diminished by some severe pestilence, the population of Rome at the beginning of this 3rd century was at least one million. An epidemic hit again between 251 and 266, with 5,000 dying each day at its peak in Rome and with the rural populations also heavily affected. The disease may have been either measles and/or smallpox. Civil disorders and barbarian invasions simply added to the problem. Vacancies within the legions on the Roman frontiers, caused by deaths from disease and mutinies, resulted in invitations to the barbarians to both enter the legions and settle the lands. Rapid die-off around the entire Mediterranean hampered commerce and diminished the flow of cash to the imperial treasury and this resulted in no pay for the soldiers, thus further mutinies, military uprisings and civil wars in outlying areas. (Ref. 140 ) Armies in different provinces tried to set up their own commanders as emperors (the "Thirty Tyrants"), but this situation was eliminated between 268 and 284. Of course almost constant war with the powerful Persians in the east did not help and a succession of emperors of anarchy came and went, usually by murders. The resources of the rich were consumed by war and by the government. The menial work of Rome was performed by about 400,000 slaves, with even middle class citizens owning about 8 and the rich from 500 to 1,000. (Ref. 222 )

The eastern part of the empire was momentarily saved in name, if not in truth, by Odenathus and Zenobia, as we have reported in the section on THE NEAR EAST. Gaul had revolted and assumed its own autonomy under first Postumus and then Tetricus. Aurel- ian, emperor from 270 to 275, however, temporarily restored Gaul, Spain and Britain to the fold and built the existing walls of Rome as a protection against future incursions by barbarians. To keep the expanding poor of Rome reasonably happy, Aurelian added free pork-fat and wine to the "Annona", as well as giving bread instead of just grain. In order to pay troops, the government gradually debased the silver currency and along with devaluation this culminated in rapid inflation. Increasingly slaves were used in all capacities, even in positions of dependent management of farms, shops, ships and banks. (Ref. 8 )

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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