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The great silver mines of Bolivia continued to operate during the century. The greatest mining camp was Potosi, 4,000 meters high in the Andes, where more than 100,000 people lived under most expensive conditions. A hen could cost 8 reals, an egg 2. Only the merchants made money. (Ref. 292 ) The Atacamanian Indians allowed a permanent contact between the populations of southern Peru and the tribes of central Chile - the Diaguites and Araucanians. They kept their own language until late in this century and had a population of about 10,000. One of the foods used by South American Indians on long journeys was prepared by taking 1/4 inch strips of lean game meat (later beef), dipping them in strong brine or rubbing them with salt, then rolling them in animal hide for 10 to 12 hours to allow re-absorption of the salt and release of some juices, then hanging the strips in the sun to dry and finally tying them in bundles. The Indians called this charqui which was later corrupted in the United States West to "jerked" beef or "jerky". (Ref. 211 )

Eastern coast and central south america

The alliance of Portugal with England during the war of the Spanish succession led to French attacks on Brazilian ports, Rio de Janeiro being sacked in 1711. There was continued trouble between the Portuguese and the converted Indians (the Paulistas), with some open warfare finally resulting in the pushing of the line of Portuguese territory farther westward into the jungles. In addition there was war (1710-11) between the native Brazilians of Olinda, capital of Pernambuco, and the Portuguese town of Recife. Again the latter won and made Recife the capital of Brazil until 1763 when it was moved to Rio de Janeiro because of the development of nearby gold mines. Actually the peak gold production was between the years of 1750 and 1755, when over 15 tons a year were mined. (Ref. 260 , 292 ) Throughout all this Brazil continued to provide Europe with sugar, coffee, cacao, rice and cotton, in addition to the gold, but since the Indian labor population had been almost obliterated by conquest and disease, they had been replaced by Africans.

By 1775 some 5 1/2 million slaves had been brought to America, although only 1 1/2 million had survived. (Ref. 8 ) By mid-century the minister the Marquis de Pombal introduced colonial reforms, including the removal of certain restrictions and taxes and the organization of trading companies. Actually some native Brazilians were appointed to important governmental posts, racial equality was advocated and defenses were improved, but the masters of Brazil were still the merchants of Portugal. The discovery of the rich gold and diamond finds early in the century had helped the economy considerably.

The Jesuits were expelled from their "reductions" in land-locked Paraguay among the Guarani Indians. The "reductions" were compounds with two priests, an Indian supervisor and many Indian farmers and laborers, ostensibly designed to acquaint the natives with Spanish religion and ways, but which really became commercial enterprises competing with other private businesses. The Guarani were language-related to the Tubi groups of Brazil. (Ref. 8 , 38 ) There were some serious clashes between Spain and Portugal over the area of Uruguay (then called "Banda Oriental") and although Spain created the Viceroyalty of La Plata in 1776 as a defensive as well as administrative measure, the final disposition of the territory was not finally decided until the next century. (Ref. 119 )

The fierce Araucanian Indians, some of whom had escaped the Spaniards in the 16th century by taking refuge with their stolen Spanish horses on the eastern slopes of the Andes, subsequently invaded the pampas and occasionally still threatened Buenos Aires in this century. (Ref. 62 ) The sale of thousands of mules a year to Peru and Brazil gave primitive Argentina a chance to share in the silver and gold of those countries. Some 2,000,000 mules may have been used in Central and South America for saddle or carrying (rarely for hauling). European oxen were used for - drawing heavy carts in the pampas and the gauchos were already riding great horses at the end of the century. Even so, whether traveling by horseback, mule or ox-cart, travelers across the Argentine deserts had to be sure of elaborate arrangements to find food and water. (Ref. 260 )

Forward to America: A.D. 1801 to 1900

    Choose different region

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  • Pacific

In the Aleutian Islands prior to Bering's discovery in 1741 there were about 16,000 inhabitants with an advanced culture, for aborigines. They had a relative high standard of living with art, music, medicine, some surgery and mummification. After the Russians arrived the Aleuts were essentially enslaved and their numbers dropped to 3,200. (Ref. 310 ) It is interesting to note that before his famous voyages to the Pacific James Cook was an officer aboard the Eagle for 2 years after war started between England and France (1758) and then as master of a ship he charted much of the east coast of Canada between the years 1762 and 1769. He helped in the battle of Louisberg and Quebec on the St. Lawrence. (Ref. 302 )

After a revolt in the Windward Islands in the 1,790s, "Black Caribs" (descendants of Carib Indians and black slaves) were banished from St. Vincent and went to the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras and then to the mainland coast, where many still live in isolated villages. (Ref. 308 )

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
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Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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