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Drosophila melanogaster

D. melanogaster

The drosophila (fruit fly) genome is 180Mb in size and contains approx. 13,600 genes (Genie and Genescan were used to predict genes). The somewhat smaller C. elegans genome actually contains more genes than the Drosophila genome, although the functional diversity between the two species appears to be very similar. The Drosophila genome was published in March of 2000 (Science, 24 March 2000), a few years after the C. elegans genome was initially released. The genome contains 3 autosomal chromosomes (numbered 2-4), and one X chromosome. Each drosophila gene contains on average 4 exons of approx. 750bp a piece. Intron size is highly variable and can range from 40bp to more than 70kb. Introns and exons are both predicted to occupy around 20Mb of sequence.

Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens

Sequencing of the human genome was first formally proposed in 1985, but at the time the idea was met with mixed reactions in the scientific community. Then in1990 the Human Genome Project (HGP), under the direction by the N.I.H. and the Dept. of Energy, launched a 15-year, $3 billion plan for sequencing the complete human genome. Their progress was slow however and the HGP did not appear to be on pace to finish by the projected date in 2005. Half way through their planned time period, in early 1998, the HGP had sequenced less than 5% of the entire genome.

Then, in the same year that the HGP was reevaluating its progress, Celera, headed by Craig Venter, announced its intention to sequence the entire human genome over a three year period. After cutting their teeth on the Drosophila genome (which was done in collaboration with Gerald Rubin and the Berkley Drosophila Genome Project), Celera initiated the whole-genome shotgun sequencing of the human genome on September 8th, 1999. Less than a year later, on 17 June 2000, the first draft of the genome was completed. Today 99.9% of the human genome is 'finished', meaning less than 1 bp error per 10,000 base pairs.

The method Celera used, termed shotgun sequencing, is conceptually straightforward, but requires large amounts of computer processing power to complete. The protocol (in great oversimplification) is as follows: 1) cut up the genomic DNA into small pieces of known and regular size, 2) clone the pieces of genomic DNA into plasmids for purification and amplification purposes, 3) randomly sequence the DNA fragments from the plasmids while screening the results for contamination, 4) and then load the whole sequenced mess into the computer and let the computer sort it all out. The computer essentially plays a giant matching game building up larger and larger overlapping sequences until the whole genome is finally laid out in entirety. The process is, of course, not nearly this simple. One major complication worth mentioning is that the human genome is particularly replete with repeat sequences that could easily create numerous misleading matches. Computing the set of all overlaps required approx. 10,000 CPU hours on a suite of four-processor Alpha SMPs with 4 gigabytes of RAM (4-5 days in elapsed time using 40 such machines).

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Genefinding. OpenStax CNX. Jun 17, 2003 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10205/1.1
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