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v p y x = - ω k = v

v p = v y x

At a given position “x” and time “t”, the particle velocity is related to wave speed by this equation. Note that direction of particle velocity is determined by the sign of slope as wave speed is a positive quantity. We can interpret direction of motion of the particles on the string by observing “y-x” plot of a wave form. We know that “y-x” plot is a description of wave form at a particular time instant. It is important to emphasize that a wave like representation does not show the motion of wave. An arrow showing the direction of wave motion gives the sense of motion. The wave form is a snapshot (hence stationary) at a particular instant. We can, however, assess the direction of particle velocity by just assessing the slope at any position x=x. See the plot shown in the figure below :

Particle velocity

Particle velocity and slope of waveform.

The slope at “A” is positive and hence particle velocity is negative. It means that particle at this position - at the instant waveform is captured in the figure - is moving towards mean (or equilibrium) position. The slope at “B” is negative and hence particle velocity is positive. It means that particle at this position - at the instant waveform is captured in the figure - is moving towards positive extreme position. The slope at “C” is negative and hence particle velocity is positive. It means that particle at this position - at the instant waveform is captured in the figure - is moving towards mean (or equilibrium) position. The slope at “D” is positive and hence particle velocity is negative. It means that particle at this position - at the instant waveform is captured in the figure - is moving towards negative extreme position.

We can crosscheck or collaborate the deductions drawn as above by drawing wave form at another close instant t = t+∆t. We can visualize the direction of velocity by assessing the direction in which the particle at a position has moved in the small time interval considered.

Particle velocity

Particle velocity and slope of waveform.

Different forms of wave function

Different forms give rise to a bit of confusion about the form of wave function. The forms used for describing waves are :

y x , t = A sin k x ω t

y x , t = A sin ω t k x

Which of the two forms is correct? In fact, both are correct so long we are in a position to accurately interpret the equation. Starting with the first equation and using trigonometric identity :

sin θ = sin π θ

We have,

A sin k x ω t = A sin π k x + ω t = = A sin ω t k x + π

Thus we see that two forms represent waves moving at the same speed ( v = ω / k ). They differ, however, in phase. There is phase difference of “π”. This has implication on the waveform and the manner particle oscillates at any given time instant and position. Let us consider two waveforms at x=0, t=0. The slopes of the waveforms are :

x y x , t = k A cos k x ω t = k A = a positive number


x y x , t = k A cos ω t k x = k A = a negative number

Forms of wave functions

Exchange of terms in the argument of sine function results in a phase difference of π.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Oscillation and wave motion. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10493/1.12
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