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Social sciences: geography

Grade 9

Development issues

Module 1

Political background

1. Political background

  • The Second World War influenced political activities as well as development in South Africa. There was discord amongst the whites and the blacks were becoming impatient. The ANC and their Youth League became active and the Smuts government was in doubt about the road they should follow. The country was rapidly getting urbanised, which had certain implications for its development. The government of that time was of the opinion that segregation (separation and inequality amongst the different races) should be removed from the system. The pass laws became less stringent, blacks were recognised as men and women, and welfare programmes were launched to ensure the development of all the country’s people. In the meantime, however, Afrikaner nationalism was growing. This was the beginning of important changes in the country. Eventually the National Party won die general elections in 1948. This made them the governing party and the system of Apartheid became official. Segregation or the separation of races became formal practice, and all groups and areas were not developed equally. Certain areas and population groups remained behind. This is why we still refer to “previously disadvantaged communities”. The present government is trying to rectify the situation by offering everybody equal access to development and prosperity. This is one of the country’s biggest challenges in which all of us have to cooperate.

Genl. J.C. Smuts – leader in the United Party

A typical example of separate amenities

The first three prime ministers after the National Party came into power. From left to right:dr. D.F. Malan (1948 – 1954), mr. J.G. Strydom (1954 – 1958) and dr. H.F. Verwoerd (1958 – 1966)

Activity 1:

To write an essay on the changes that took place in South Africa after 1940

[LO 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4]

Study the following photos. Write an essay of one A4-page to describe the changes in more detail. Give examples of specific changes that had taken place. The History teacher and the learners’ parents and other members of the family might be able to supply more information. Ask two or three learners to read their reports to the class, and encourage discussion.

District Six

Selected sources to consult

1. Müller, C.F.J. e.a.: 500 Jaar Suid-Afrikaanse Geskiedenis, Kaapstad. 1980

2. Ormer-Cooper, J.D.: History of Southern Africa, London, 1994

3. Welsh, F.: A History of South Africa, London, 2000

4. Giliomee, H.: The Afrikaners, Cape Town, 2004


Learning outcomes(LO)
LO 3
EXPLORING THE ISSUES The learner can take informed decisions on social and environmental issues and problems
Assessment standards(AS)
This is clear when the learner:
  1. identifies social and environmental conflicts in South Africa and compares it with other contexts [identifies the issue];
3.2 identifies factors that have an influence on selected social and environmental disputes, including those regarding rights; gender; social, economical and political claims within a specific context [factors affecting the issues];
  1. analyses the reason for disputes or conflicts [makes choices];
3.4 takes informed decisions on various solutions to social and environmental conflicts [makes choices].

Questions & Answers

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Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Akash Reply
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Sanket Reply
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Damian Reply
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abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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I'm interested in nanotube
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Ramkumar Reply
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Sravani Reply
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Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11057/1.1
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