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Techniques based on the nature of the application

The above techniques apply to all types of software. However, for some kinds of applications, some additional know-how is required for test derivation. A list of a few specialized testing fields is provided here, based on the nature of the application under test:

  • Object-oriented testing
  • Component-based testing
  • Web-based testing
  • GUI testing
  • Testing of concurrent programs
  • Protocol conformance testing
  • Testing of real-time systems
  • Testing of safety-critical systems (IEEE1228-94)

Selecting and combining techniques

Functional and structural

Specification-based and code-based test techniques are often contrasted as functional vs. structural testing. These two approaches to test selection are not to be seen as alternative but rather as complementary; in fact, they use different sources of information and have proved to highlight different kinds of problems. They could be used in combination, depending on budgetary considerations.

Deterministic vs. random

Test cases can be selected in a deterministic way, according to one of the various techniques listed, or randomly drawn from some distribution of inputs, such as is usually done in reliability testing. Several analytical and empirical comparisons have been conducted to analyze the conditions that make one approach more effective than the other.

Sometimes, test techniques are confused with test objectives. Test techniques are to be viewed as aids which help to ensure the achievement of test objectives. For instance, branch coverage is a popular test technique. Achieving a specified branch coverage measure should not be considered the objective of testing per se: it is a means to improve the chances of finding failures by systematically exercising every program branch out of a decision point. To avoid such misunderstandings, a clear distinction should be made between test-related measures, which provide an evaluation of the program under test based on the observed test outputs, and those which evaluate the thoroughness of the test set.

Measurement is usually considered instrumental to quality analysis. Measurement may also be used to optimize the planning and execution of the tests. Test management can use several process measures to monitor progress.

Evaluation of the program under test (ieee982.1-98)

Program measurements to aid in planning and designing testing (iee982.1-88)

Measures based on program size (for example, source lines of code or function points) or on program structure (like complexity) are used to guide testing. Structural measures can also include measurements among program modules in terms of the frequency with which modules call each other.

Fault types, classification, and statistics (eee1044-93)

The testing literature is rich in classifications and taxonomies of faults. To make testing more effective, it is important to know which types of faults could be found in the software under test, and the relative frequency with which these faults have occurred in the past. This information can be very useful in making quality predictions, as well as for process improvement.

Questions & Answers

how can i ave install usb drive but get it not connecting phone
Micheal Reply
hmm
abang
may be it has a problem
abang
maybe u should change usb drive
gabriel
what is 404 error
Hemant Reply
different cmmi level
Sahil Reply
Please I need a teacher
shittu
wht teacher u need?
HANAN
hi
RITESH
is software
RITESH
hello
sarbajeet
good morning all
Hemant
heyy
Ultimate
hi hi
HANAN
hehahahahahha
amjad
what is cmmi
Mulukutla Reply
what are the benefits of been a software engineer
Amissah
hi
Sunday
gud morning oo
Sunday
kk
Sunday
the benefits are life changing
Louis
can have your own ai
Louis
an ai system
Louis
is studying software engineer needs to be math expertise?
Carmela
depends on what your doing
Louis
grasp the whole field by being a problem solver
Louis
mathematics is the language of computing
Louis
but also its the language of the universe
Louis
before you start typing code please plan on pen and paper first with a goal in mind.
Louis
Thank you !!
Carmela
Are you a software engineer already?
Carmela
mathematics is not compulsory for coding
Nadday
just needed basic Nexus calculations
Nadday
what programming language ?
Louis
@Carnela Villegas : Your welcome
Louis
engineering in process student of software engineering
Nadday
@Naddy Naddy: What programming language are you using if i may ask ?
Louis
couple of languages are there not bounded specifically to single one
Nadday
python, Java, Java script, php, swift, go, c# and many more are trending in
Nadday
Java is now superseding his popularity but still the one of the most used coding language
Nadday
I want to be a software engineer too ...
Carmela
best of luck
Nadday
python is now
Louis
python is used by nasa and for data science aswell for live coding and hacking
Louis
it is the fastest growing language to date
Louis
but being efficient at math is a general stand point if your not language specific
Louis
but c++ can't be beat
Louis
especially with the new c++20 coming
Louis
swift for apple
Louis
swift is made by c code
Louis
c++ is > c
Louis
yes pathon is invented in 1991 by guido van rusom it's popular now a days but it's literally used now as much a Java and Java script php but still most popular python
Nadday
c made java
Louis
java is still convenient though
Louis
c made by bell laboratories one of the basic coding languages
Nadday
windows also used it
Nadday
it just depends on what goal you have in mind to you have in mind to use programming language as a conversion
Louis
mathematics > any programming language
Louis
😊
Louis
sorry I've accidentally placed a question mark lol
Louis
😂
Louis
sorry I couldn't get your point
Nadday
no i was saying my device placed 2 question marks accidentally
Louis
but your very intelligent aswell my friend where do you stay if i may ask @Naddy Naddy ?
Louis
I am from Pakistan
Nadday
awesome im from united states my friend nice to meet you lol
Louis
thank you same here
Nadday
😇
Louis
I am doing coding for the elimination of the cyber crimes and strengthen the cyber security
Nadday
Thats awesome im a defcon spy
Louis
white hat
Louis
im a good guy 😊
Louis
nice to hear
Nadday
coding phenomena practice practice and practice
Nadday
yeah same
Louis
thanks. good to know - ' practice practice and practice!'
oh yeah guys alien being exist other than us
Louis
👽
Louis
I like to be software engineer
Toheeb
what is the leading programming language in the world?
HANAN
I have mentioned the names above
Nadday
@HANAN
Louis
ahh ok i will check @Nadday Nadday
HANAN
java ri8 🤞 @Nadday Nadday
HANAN
yes Java is also but not we could limitize the premises
Nadday
there are many others also
Nadday
i mean i ask the best top 1 ..which language is that @Nadday Nadday
HANAN
@HANAN THE PROGRAMMER IS THE LEADING PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE OF THE WORLD IG YOU KNOW WHAT I MEAN
Louis
@HANAN whatever language your most comfortable with
Louis
ohhh thank u @Louis johnson
HANAN
i love to be a software engineer but i dont know how to learn😔
HANAN
go for formal education
Nadday
now i m doing Advance level + HND in Computing and System Develipment... this time i have to finish my assignment but still i didn't finish ... i like to be a software engineer ....but i don't know how to
HANAN
your previous education level @hanan?
Nadday
@HANAN as an advanced human just build your own learning strategy in which is the best way anyway through trial and error or books self learn teach output to others who are willing to learn from ground up from the organization you've built and spread
Louis
@louis johnson ok i will try😊👍...anyway thank u soo much guys @Nadday and @louis
HANAN
@HANAN any errors that need to be fixed just fix along the way in future from your atomic learning process
Louis
learn the difference in micro and macro put it to use as a handle in real reality objective analysis
Louis
thank u soo much bro @louis ...are u a software engineer?
HANAN
your major sujects in hnd
Nadday
I'm a Human lol
Louis
make your basic concepts through c and C ++
Nadday
but yes im a core engineer
Louis
you can say Engineering scientist
Louis
it is the sole centre and Nexus of coding
Nadday
how to start making a software?
Jerry Reply
books or teacher
Louis
both of
Hemant
both
ben
i prefer books and a reference teacher on side im self taught self learn everything
Louis
time is your best friend
Louis
I want learn more as well
Ogunrinde
well honestly it would be too large to explain everything in chat but, pick the programming language of choice your most comfortable with, learn that language, make it yours, use it as a primary language to learn in parallel any other language of object oriented programming,
Louis
also it wouldn't hurt to have a basic background in math
Louis
but be a scientist behind the machine(Computer)
Louis
have math be your way of translation of human to computer interaction because you can solve any problem in the universe with mathematics
Louis
good to know discrete topics embedded systems, electrical engineering
Louis
doesn't hurt to have a buddy to team up on project while your asleep to keep progressing
Louis
(Important!..) have real data to work on, the reason is because there have to be some goal to be achieved at some point.
Louis
Be alittle greedy to learn any and all about any language you use.
Louis
Another important thing is not to rush through learning
Louis
once you learn a concept try teaching the concept to someone else who is as interested as you are, that way. the concept will be stuck concretely in your mind.
Louis
slow but sure please guys.education is not like food.
Emmanuel
if you like graphics and games you can use a language that have graphics libraries such as C++, Python, or Java as an example
Louis
who can tell Why software is more important in computer science
Emmanuel
don't just learn alittle want the whole thing and want to know everything at your finger tips
Louis
grasp
Louis
because the hardware and software is useful depends on how useful your goal is
Louis
graphics is not about database management system.c++ is about programming.
Emmanuel
be an android who's drug is "addicted to information" related to the field.
Louis
and in need of the most complex algorithm update
Louis
learn console applications
Louis
how does your languge relate to databases
Louis
and web programming
Louis
i know just throwing some things your way to open mind
Louis
im certi at c++
Louis
it is a general programming language used to build many infrastructure
Louis
including database web and many other soft ware frameworks
Louis
excellent
Ogunrinde
Thanks
Louis
Suppose we are faced with developing a system that we expect to have 100000LOC. Compute the effort and the effort development time for each of the three development modes i.e. Organic, semi - detached and embedded .
yukta Reply
c++ or python or java
Louis
Discuss multi threading as used in windows, Linux and Unix
James Reply
what is software ?
Chirag Reply
Software is a general term for the various kinds of programs used to operate computers and related devices...
amjad
what is ergonomics.
amjad
er·go·nom·ics ˌərɡəˈnämiks/ noun the study of people's efficiency in their working environment
Louis
software is the principal of the application with the therm of testing desgin much more
Secret
what is software integration?how can you integrate two different softwares with one single module?
strings Reply
Either type casting or template rogramming through STL
Louis
use c++
Louis
what is the STL?
abdo
STANDARD TEMPLATE LIBRARY
Louis
thanks louis
abdo
your welcome my friend
Louis
I have another question guy's.What's the HTML?
Zuheyp Reply
An HTML is  a standardized system for tagging text files to achieve font, colour, graphic, and hyperlink effects on World Wide Web pages.
Hemant
it is also a computer language devised to allow website creation
Hemant
you're clever Man
Zuheyp
i have a c++ question
Louis
C++ is a general-purpose, case-sensitive, free-form programming language that supports procedural, object-oriented, and generic programming. C++ is regarded as a middle-level language, as it comprises a combination of both high-level and low-level language features. C++ was deve
Zuheyp
what's the relationship Design Define Debug Development Development
Zuheyp Reply
sorry question is confusing
Louis
ok
Zuheyp
Define attached Design attached Development attached Debug attached Deployment attached Define
Zuheyp
Attach and deploy components to environments instead of directly to an Atom. Components can be attached and deployed to different environments with unique build versions and can include different deploy-time settings.
Hemant
is it same?
Zuheyp
and debug:If your app is already running on your device, you can start debugging without restarting 
Hemant
yeah that's cool
Zuheyp
Am mean that's right
Zuheyp
and select the debug target
Hemant
What is C language?
Bashir Reply
short note on software engineering
prachi Reply
am interested
marvellous
Explain human computer interaction
amjad
AI
Louis
Human computer interaction is the study of how people interact with computers and to what extent computers are or are not developed for successful interaction with human beings. 
Hemant
human needs for the computer[stated]
Louis
AI=Artificial Intelligence
Louis
all explained abstractingly
Louis
Please give me a Standard definition of the word *software*
marvellous
collection of program is called software
Hemant
explain DBMS
Elias
what is sowftware?
rana Reply
please correct the spellings of software
majid
kk
Amissah
soft ware is the Application of principles used in field of engineering
Zuheyp
how do you compare c++ concepts with unity and directx pipeline
Louis
software is a collection of program.
Hemant
software engineering eligiblelity criteria for DAE civil students?
Engr Reply
Kya kar rahe sir
Mohit
scrolling youtube
MUHAMMAD
Hello, am new here. Am Samuel from Ghana (West Africa). hope am welcome to learn with you.
Samuel
welcome
amjad
thanks Muhammad
Samuel
hi
RITESH

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Source:  OpenStax, Software engineering. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10790/1.1
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