# Crystal structure  (Page 4/9)

 Page 4 / 9

## Crystal planes

Planes in a crystal can be specified using a notation called Miller indices. The Miller index is indicated by the notation [ hkl ] where h , k , and l are reciprocals of the plane with the x , y , and z axes. To obtain the Miller indices of a given plane requires the following steps:

1. The plane in question is placed on a unit cell.
2. Its intercepts with each of the crystal axes are then found.
3. The reciprocal of the intercepts are taken.
4. These are multiplied by a scalar to insure that is in the simple ratio of whole numbers.

For example, the face of a lattice that does not intersect the y or z axis would be (100), while a plane along the body diagonal would be the (111) plane. An illustration of this along with the (111) and (110) planes is given in [link] .

As with crystal directions, Miller indices directions may be grouped in families. Individual Miller indices are given in parentheses ( hkl ), while braces { hkl } are placed around the indices of a family of planes. For example, (001), (100), and (010) are all in the {100} family of planes, for a cubic lattice.

## Description of crystal structures

Crystal structures may be described in a number of ways. The most common manner is to refer to the size and shape of the unit cell and the positions of the atoms (or ions) within the cell. However, this information is sometimes insufficient to allow for an understanding of the true structure in three dimensions. Consideration of several unit cells, the arrangement of the atoms with respect to each other, the number of other atoms they in contact with, and the distances to neighboring atoms, often will provide a better understanding. A number of methods are available to describe extended solid-state structures. The most applicable with regard to elemental and compound semiconductor, metals and the majority of insulators is the close packing approach.

## Close packed structures: hexagonal close packing and cubic close packing

Many crystal structures can be described using the concept of close packing. This concept requires that the atoms (ions) are arranged so as to have the maximum density. In order to understand close packing in three dimensions, the most efficient way for equal sized spheres to be packed in two dimensions must be considered.

The most efficient way for equal sized spheres to be packed in two dimensions is shown in [link] , in which it can be seen that each sphere (the dark gray shaded sphere) is surrounded by, and is in contact with, six other spheres (the light gray spheres in [link] ). It should be noted that contact with six other spheres the maximum possible is the spheres are the same size, although lower density packing is possible. Close packed layers are formed by repetition to an infinite sheet. Within these close packed layers, three close packed rows are present, shown by the dashed lines in [link] .

what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
how I can reaction of mercury?