<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Norway

King Sigurd Magnusson, like King Harald before him, took up the fight against Moslem expansion by taking 60 Viking ships to fight in Portugal and Spain and then on to Morocco and the Balearic Islands. He was well received by his Norwegian predecessors (Normans) on Sicily, where Roger II Guiscard was duke. King Sigurd, with the consent of the pope, raised Roger to the rank of king and then proceeded on in 1110 to conquer the fortress Sidon, in Lebanon. The first cardinal to visit Norway was Nicholas, who later became Pope Adrian IV and his visit probably helped to make the Catholic Church the greatest power in Norway at the time. Most of the rest of the century was a period of confusion, marked by wars of succession and by a struggle against the growing power of the clergy. Nevertheless, there was expansion of trade and increasing prosperity. Sverre became king in 1184 and maintained a strong monarchy against both aristocratic and clerical opposition, thanks to support from small landowners. (Ref. 119, 95) Additional Notes

Sweden

King Sverker amalgamated the Sveas and the Goths and was then succeeded by Eric IX Jedvardsson in 1150. Erik restored Christianity and then conquered the heathen Finns, establishing seven-century domination over those people. (Ref. 222, 119)

Denmark

Cavalry was first used in Denmark in 1134 and this accentuated a feudal tendency as a new class of professional, military nobles appeared. In this period many Danes returned from England where William had started to persecute them and subsequently much Danish building had an English influence. Valdemar (or Waldemar) I, the Great, be came

Danish king in 1157 and gave the country a strong government, as trade increased. Copenhagen was founded as a market outlet by the chief minister, Bishop Absalon. Together the king and this minister wiped out the savage Wends, pirates from the Island of Rugen. Valdemar married two of his daughters to two of Frederick Barbarossa's sons. Absalon although not very scholarly himself, got his clerk, Saxe, to write Denmark's chronicles in Latin. Sweden never had such a chronicle and thus Swedish history is not well documented. (Ref. 117, 222)

Finland

It was raiding by the Finns on the Swedish coast which finally provoked the Swedish King Eric IX to retaliate by conquering Finland. He then withdrew most of his troops and left a Bishop Henry to convert the Finns. They promptly killed the missionary, although much later they made redemption by making him a saint. In the meantime, however, they reverted to paganism for another 50 years.

Overseas scandinavian centers

Iceland's Mount Hekla volcano erupted in 1104 and again in 1154, devastating farmland for 45 miles around its base. The Scandinavian colonies on Greenland continued throughout this century. (Ref. 222) Additional Notes

Eastern europe

Southern baltic area

When the Cuman invasion ended Russian trade with Constantinople, the exports of tallow, honey, wax and furs were sent via the Baltic to the West and the Baltic ports, already rich with fisheries, became even more important. In these states just south of the Baltic, Christianity came in by means of the German sword, through the Teutonic Knights, although the conversion was not actually official until after 1190. In the meantime, Poland subdued the Pomeranians (1102-1124) and King Boleslav III gained access to the Baltic Sea. He divided his realm into five principalities for his sons, with Cracow as the capital. The great landlords and knights had become well-defined social classes and along with the clergy became ever more powerful. After an eight year reign by Vladislav II (Ladislas), Boleslav IV took over in 1146. He was not a strong ruler and he lost territory to Albert the Bear and Henry the Lion. As far as the Germans were concerned, Poland was only a dukedom and Frederick Barbarossa again invaded Poland in 1157, forcing the submission of "Duke" Boleslav. There followed Mieszko III, who was so despotic that his own nobles drove him out in 1177 and then Casimir II, the Just. (Ref. 137, 222, 119)

Russia

This was the century of the decline and fall of the Kievan realm and according to the historical schema of Toynbee (Ref. 220) it represented the "Time of Troubles" in the Eastern Orthodox Christian Society, Russian Division. Between 1054 and 1224 there were 83 civil wars, 46 invasions of Russia, 16 wars waged by Russian states on others, and 293 princes disputing 64 thrones. (Ref . 49). Kiev, itself, succumbed internally to class warfare and a declining wealth, precipitated by the diversion of trade routes through Mediterranean channels and finally to external force as the Mongols invaded in the next century. The Cumans remained powerful in the south and continually raided until the local people fled north to the forest, emptying the steppe, but increasing the population of the central and northern principalities, including Moscow, which was founded in A.D. 1147, and Novgorod, which built up a far-flung empire far into the arctic. (Ref. 8). Vladimir Monomakh, Prince of Kiev, carried on numerous campaigns against the Cumans and his reign marked the last period of brilliance at Kiev. The Volga Bulgars still held the middle Volga region and prevented Russian expansion eastward. South of the Cumans in the Caucasus there was a large group of Alans and the Kingdom of Georgia. (Ref. 137)

The great banking houses of Florence started the European economy revival and Genoa followed. (Ref. 292)

The Irish text, the title of which translates as War of the Irish with the Foreigners, like many of the medieval sagas, is a piece of dynastic propaganda, written in this century. It starts with an account of Viking attacks of the 9th and 10th centuries and then goes into an heroic saga about 2 Munster kings, Mathgamain and his brother Brian Boru (further described on page 557), from whom the O'Brien kings traced their descent. (Ref. 301)

Throughout Scandinavia scattered royal estates having several houses served as bases for royal officials. (Ref. 301)

The death of King Magnus on his second expedition to Ulster in 1102, marks the end of the Viking Age. In western Norway two classes of freemen were recognized: the "hauldar", owning inherited land and other men of free descent, farming land not theirs by inheritance. The law of Trondelag recognized these two classes but also a third, lower class of landless freemen. "Mansbot" was an atonement price, the legal value of a man's life and varying according to his class. After a killing, a feud could be averted by paying the "mansbot" to the family, which could be extended to 4th or 5th cousins' Much that has been written about this may be pure fantasy, constructed by later medieval lawyers. Norway had a single king in this century, but his influence did not extend far inland. (Ref. 301)

Several Icelandic farms were smothered by tephra from the eruption of Mount Hekla, and many of these have been excavated. Power in Iceland was divided among many chieftains. The early church was not a royal institution, but early bishops were, in fact, chieftains. All chiefs fought for more land and power, but in the meeting of the Allthing once a year the unity of the country was symbolically expressed. This was the century when Icelanders began to compose sagas, first about Norwegian kings and Icelandic bishops, later about the families who were believed to have played prominent parts in the history of the country. Some 300 farms had been established in Greenland by this century. (Ref. 301)

Forward to Europe: A.D. 1201 to 1300

    Choose different region

  • Intro to Era
  • Africa
  • America
  • Central and Northern Asia
  • The Far East
  • The Indian Subcontinent
  • The Near East
  • Pacific

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask