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Since the responsibility for food safety rests with you, direct verification of systems is extremely important for Basic Level requirements. You should personally monitor activities on a regular basis and record your findings.

Food safety

When considering food safety, you must understand the difference between quality and safety.

Food Safety (Codex Standards)
Assurance that food will not cause harm when prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use.

Food safety refers to attributes that cannot be directly observed, but instead require laboratory procedures for their measurement. These procedures include microbiological techniques or chemical analysis.

Food quality refers to attributes that can be readily observed by sight, smell, or simple measurement (such as color or condition). Food quality is easier to assess than food safety.

Definition of a food safety hazard

Food Safety Hazard (Codex Standards)
A biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food with the potential to cause an adverse health effect.

Food safety hazards include bacteria, viruses, parasites, hazardous chemicals, and foreign materials that can cause an adverse health effect to a consumer.

Food safety hazards

In food safety management systems, hazards refer to conditions or contaminants in foods that can cause illness or injury.

It is important to understand that hazards do not refer to undesirable conditions or contaminants such as

  • presence of insects
  • spoilage
  • hair or dirt
  • violations of regulatory food standards not directly related to safety.

Biological hazards

There are a number of different types of biological hazards that can be present within food. These are typically microorganisms and include

  • bacteria
  • viruses
  • parasites.

Control points for biological hazards must be identified during the process and storage of food products. This can be done by using hazard analysis techniques.

Practical food microbiology

Microorganisms are small, living uni-cellular or multi-cellular organisms. They include bacteria, viruses, yeasts, molds, and parasites. These are not all necessarily bad for humans; in fact, many can be beneficial to humans.

There are different types of microorganisms:

  • helpful
  • spoilage
  • disease causing – pathogenic.

Helpful microorganisms

Helpful microorganisms can be added to foods or are found naturally in them.

In many cases, microorganisms are used in foods to help with preservation but can also be added to create unique flavors and textures.

Foods such sauerkraut and pickles utilize fermentation as a preservation process and use microorganisms to carry out this fermentation process. Other foods such as bread use fermentation as an essential part of their production.

Spoilage microorganisms

Spoilage microorganisms affect the quality of the product, not necessarily the safety of the food. It is usually very easy to indentify when a food product is affected by spoilage, by look or taste. There can be discoloration on fruit, molds on bread, or milk that tastes sour.

In some cases spoilage microorganisms can affect the safety of products. An example is that some fruits can decay by a mold called penicillium expansum . This mold produces a toxin that can affect humans.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Food safety knowledge network basic level requirements. OpenStax CNX. Dec 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11142/1.4
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