# 5.2 Unit circle: sine and cosine functions

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In this section, you will:
• Find function values for the sine and cosine of and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{60°}^{}\text{or}\left(\frac{\pi }{3}\right).$
• Identify the domain and range of sine and cosine functions.
• Use reference angles to evaluate trigonometric functions.

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## Finding function values for the sine and cosine

To define our trigonometric functions, we begin by drawing a unit circle, a circle centered at the origin with radius 1, as shown in [link] . The angle (in radians) that $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ intercepts forms an arc of length $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}s.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Using the formula $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}s=rt,$ and knowing that $r=1,$ we see that for a unit circle    , $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}s=t.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$

Recall that the x- and y- axes divide the coordinate plane into four quarters called quadrants. We label these quadrants to mimic the direction a positive angle would sweep. The four quadrants are labeled I, II, III, and IV.

For any angle $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t,$ we can label the intersection of the terminal side and the unit circle as by its coordinates, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(x,y\right).\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ The coordinates $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ will be the outputs of the trigonometric functions $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(t\right)=\mathrm{cos}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(t\right)=\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t,$ respectively. This means $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=\mathrm{cos}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$

## Unit circle

A unit circle    has a center at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(0,0\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and radius $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ . In a unit circle, the length of the intercepted arc is equal to the radian measure of the central angle $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1.$

Let $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(x,y\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ be the endpoint on the unit circle of an arc of arc length $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}s.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ The $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(x,y\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ coordinates of this point can be described as functions of the angle.

## Defining sine and cosine functions

Now that we have our unit circle labeled, we can learn how the $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(x,y\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ coordinates relate to the arc length    and angle    . The sine function    relates a real number $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to the y -coordinate of the point where the corresponding angle intercepts the unit circle. More precisely, the sine of an angle $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ equals the y -value of the endpoint on the unit circle of an arc of length $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ In [link] , the sine is equal to $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Like all functions, the sine function has an input and an output. Its input is the measure of the angle; its output is the y -coordinate of the corresponding point on the unit circle.

The cosine function    of an angle $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ equals the x -value of the endpoint on the unit circle of an arc of length $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ In [link] , the cosine is equal to $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$

Because it is understood that sine and cosine are functions, we do not always need to write them with parentheses: $\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t$ is the same as $\mathrm{sin}\left(t\right)$ and $\mathrm{cos}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t$ is the same as $\mathrm{cos}\left(t\right).$ Likewise, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\mathrm{cos}}^{2}t\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is a commonly used shorthand notation for ${\left(\mathrm{cos}\left(t\right)\right)}^{2}.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Be aware that many calculators and computers do not recognize the shorthand notation. When in doubt, use the extra parentheses when entering calculations into a calculator or computer.

can I see the picture
How would you find if a radical function is one to one?
how to understand calculus?
with doing calculus
SLIMANE
Thanks po.
Jenica
Hey I am new to precalculus, and wanted clarification please on what sine is as I am floored by the terms in this app? I don't mean to sound stupid but I have only completed up to college algebra.
I don't know if you are looking for a deeper answer or not, but the sine of an angle in a right triangle is the length of the opposite side to the angle in question divided by the length of the hypotenuse of said triangle.
Marco
can you give me sir tips to quickly understand precalculus. Im new too in that topic. Thanks
Jenica
if you remember sine, cosine, and tangent from geometry, all the relationships are the same but they use x y and r instead (x is adjacent, y is opposite, and r is hypotenuse).
Natalie
it is better to use unit circle than triangle .triangle is only used for acute angles but you can begin with. Download any application named"unit circle" you find in it all you need. unit circle is a circle centred at origine (0;0) with radius r= 1.
SLIMANE
What is domain
johnphilip
the standard equation of the ellipse that has vertices (0,-4)&(0,4) and foci (0, -15)&(0,15) it's standard equation is x^2 + y^2/16 =1 tell my why is it only x^2? why is there no a^2?
what is foci?
This term is plural for a focus, it is used for conic sections. For more detail or other math questions. I recommend researching on "Khan academy" or watching "The Organic Chemistry Tutor" YouTube channel.
Chris
how to determine the vertex,focus,directrix and axis of symmetry of the parabola by equations
i want to sure my answer of the exercise
what is the diameter of(x-2)²+(y-3)²=25
how to solve the Identity ?
what type of identity
Jeffrey
Confunction Identity
Barcenas
how to solve the sums
meena
hello guys
meena
For each year t, the population of a forest of trees is represented by the function A(t) = 117(1.029)t. In a neighboring forest, the population of the same type of tree is represented by the function B(t) = 86(1.025)t.
by how many trees did forest "A" have a greater number?
Shakeena
32.243
Kenard
how solve standard form of polar
what is a complex number used for?
It's just like any other number. The important thing to know is that they exist and can be used in computations like any number.
Steve
I would like to add that they are used in AC signal analysis for one thing
Scott
Good call Scott. Also radar signals I believe.
Steve
They are used in any profession where the phase of a waveform has to be accounted for in the calculations. Imagine two electrical signals in a wire that are out of phase by 90°. At some times they will interfere constructively, others destructively. Complex numbers simplify those equations
Tim
Is there any rule we can use to get the nth term ?
how do you get the (1.4427)^t in the carp problem?