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Defense mechanisms

Freud believed that feelings of anxiety result from the ego’s inability to mediate the conflict between the id and superego. When this happens, Freud believed that the ego seeks to restore balance through various protective measures known as defense mechanisms ( [link] ). When certain events, feelings, or yearnings cause an individual anxiety, the individual wishes to reduce that anxiety. To do that, the individual’s unconscious mind uses ego defense mechanisms , unconscious protective behaviors that aim to reduce anxiety. The ego, usually conscious, resorts to unconscious strivings to protect the ego from being overwhelmed by anxiety. When we use defense mechanisms, we are unaware that we are using them. Further, they operate in various ways that distort reality. According to Freud, we all use ego defense mechanisms.

A chart defines eight defense mechanisms and gives an example of each. “Denial” is defined as “Refusing to accept real events because they are unpleasant.” The example given is “Kaila refuses to admit she has an alcohol problem although she is unable to go a single day without drinking excessively.” “Displacement” is defined as “Transferring inappropriate urges or behaviors onto a more acceptable or less threatening target.” The example given is “During lunch at a restaurant, Mark is angry at his older brother, but does not express it and instead is verbally abusive to the server.” “Projection” is defined as “Attributing unacceptable desires to others.” The example given is “Chris often cheats on her boyfriend because she suspects he is already cheating on her.” “Rationalization” is defined as “Justifying behaviors by substituting acceptable reasons for less-acceptable real reasons.” The example given is “Kim failed his history course because he did not study or attend class, but he told his roommates that he failed because the professor didn’t like him.” “Reaction Formation” is defined as “Reducing anxiety by adopting beliefs contrary to your own beliefs.” The example given is “Nadia is angry with her coworker Beth for always arriving late to work after a night of partying, but she is nice and agreeable to Beth and affirms the partying as cool.” “Regression” is defined as “Returning to coping strategies for less mature stages of development.” The example given is “After failing to pass his doctoral examinations, Giorgio spends days in bed cuddling his favorite childhood toy.” “Repression” is defined as “Supressing painful memories and thoughts.” The example given is “LaShea cannot remember her grandfather’s fatal heart attack, although she was present.” “Sublimation” is defined as “Redirecting unacceptable desires through socially acceptable channels.” The example given is “Jerome’s desire for revenge on the drunk driver who killed his son is channeled into a community support group for people who’ve lost loved ones to drunk driving.”
Defense mechanisms are unconscious protective behaviors that work to reduce anxiety.

While everyone uses defense mechanisms, Freud believed that overuse of them may be problematic. For example, let’s say Joe Smith is a high school football player. Deep down, Joe feels sexually attracted to males. His conscious belief is that being gay is immoral and that if he were gay, his family would disown him and he would be ostracized by his peers. Therefore, there is a conflict between his conscious beliefs (being gay is wrong and will result in being ostracized) and his unconscious urges (attraction to males). The idea that he might be gay causes Joe to have feelings of anxiety. How can he decrease his anxiety? Joe may find himself acting very “macho,” making gay jokes, and picking on a school peer who is gay. This way, Joe’s unconscious impulses are further submerged.

There are several different types of defense mechanisms. For instance, in repression, anxiety-causing memories from consciousness are blocked. As an analogy, let’s say your car is making a strange noise, but because you do not have the money to get it fixed, you just turn up the radio so that you no longer hear the strange noise. Eventually you forget about it. Similarly, in the human psyche, if a memory is too overwhelming to deal with, it might be repressed and thus removed from conscious awareness (Freud, 1920). This repressed memory might cause symptoms in other areas.

Another defense mechanism is reaction formation    , in which someone expresses feelings, thoughts, and behaviors opposite to their inclinations. In the above example, Joe made fun of a homosexual peer while himself being attracted to males. In regression    , an individual acts much younger than their age. For example, a four-year-old child who resents the arrival of a newborn sibling may act like a baby and revert to drinking out of a bottle. In projection    , a person refuses to acknowledge her own unconscious feelings and instead sees those feelings in someone else. Other defense mechanisms include rationalization    , displacement    , and sublimation    .

Stages of psychosexual development

Freud believed that personality develops during early childhood: Childhood experiences shape our personalities as well as our behavior as adults. He asserted that we develop via a series of stages during childhood. Each of us must pass through these childhood stages, and if we do not have the proper nurturing and parenting during a stage, we will be stuck, or fixated, in that stage, even as adults.

Questions & Answers

What is deflation
Aluko Reply
Enumerate emotional intelligence to a manager
Chinonso Reply
What about Sydney Alexander's Absorption approach in international trade?
Vibhas Reply
I need help in inflation graphs
Brandon Reply
Select inflation type, Demand pull, cost pull or anticipation 1- Select the set of data you intend on graphing i.e inflation rate of 2017, location (particular country) 2 - Select the type of measurement tool that best allows you to input the inflation data, Consumer price index is the most accurate
Jama
this is to make sure you have all the correct information, Also use should know 1- Cost pull is Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply AD - AS graphed 2- Demans pull is Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand AS - AD graphed
Jama
what is production
Imoro Reply
what is a monopolistic competition?
moniman Reply
Enumerate emotional intelligence to a manager
Chinonso
Enumerate emotional intelligence to a manager
Chinonso
who is barter
Tening Reply
exchange goods each other
Seven
what is economic
Bah
is the use of scares resources to satisfy our unlimited needs and wants
Desiderius
how many kinds of utility functions?
Sadaf
What is partnership?
Jackson
the legal association of two or more people as co-owners of a business for profit.
harmony
Would you expect the kinked demand curve to be more extreme (like a right angle) or less extreme (like a normal demand curve) if each firm in the cartel produces a near-identical product like OPEC and petroleum? What if each firm produces a somewhat different product?
James Reply
no
Sadaf
what is supply
Mizta Reply
what is opportunity cost
Mizta
The opportunity gained interms of opportunity lost is known as opportunity cost Or The second best alternative use of resources
Mir
forgone alternative: like forgoing Something our of two to buy one
Tam-Waribo
what is macro economic s
Addo Reply
macroeconomics is the study of economic as a whole level.
Gafar
meaning of positive science
Sumit Reply
positive science it is focused on facts and cause and effect and behavioural relationship and include developmental testing in economic theoreis.
Gafar
what is inflation
Sama Reply
inflation is the general price increase of goods and services in an economy.
tesfie
Inflation is the persistent rise in the general price level
T-Max
inflation is characterized by increase in the general price of goods and services. when there is too much money in circulation. increase in demand of goods pursuing fewer goods. when purchasing power of money decreases .
Ejikeme
inflation is the persistent rise general price level
Habeeb
inflation is the persistent increase in price
Machall
hi
Rafiu
yes
boston
hi
Ayaan
how are you
Ayaan
increase in the general level of price...
sade
what is deflation
Sele
is the gradual decrease of currency exchange in a country.
Gafar
why ecnomics important ? give answer plz
Saifullah
Because is a field of science study that reflects on our day to day activities with human behavior.
ANSU
why economic is a science
Imoro
Economics is referred to as a social science not a pure science. It's regarded as a social science because it makes use of the scientific method to solve problems. The scientific method refers to observation, asking questions, forming hypothesis, experimentation etc
Nkechi
Economics is a social science because it study human behavior how he relates with his daily activities with the available limited resources to satisfy his wants.
Ojo
what are the factors affecting the demand
Mohammed
yeah it uses the scientific method to study human behaviour.
Nkechi
inflation referes to the persistant increase in the general price of goods and services over a given period of time say a year.
Abdul
factors affacting Demand of good and services are 1.price of a commodity in question 2.price of related commodity 3.Income of a consumer 4.Population 5.tast and prefereance 6.Season or weather condition
Abdul
what is difference between perfect and non perfect market.
Saheed
what the difference between Trade off and Opportunity Cost?
Elzevery
answer
Golda
In trade off, you increase the amount of something by decreasing the amount of something else. For example, you use 2 hours to study and 2 hours for leisure. if you increase study hour by 1 more hour, i.e 3 hours, leisure time will decrease by 1 hour, i.e 1 hour.
harmony
In all, you would have traded off 1 hour of leisure time for 3 hours of study time. But in opportunity cost, you let something go in order to obtain something else entirely.
harmony
thanks for your idea
Elzevery
please i want help on thid question given P=$10 And TC=120+4Q2 1.find the profit maximizing level of price and quantity. 2.what will be the total profit?
Shemels
please how is substitutional effect affecting demand
Acha
if a price of a particular commodity is high people demand less ,they rather go for less one
FIDELIS
what is account
Wasif
account is an arrangement between a customer and a bank that allows the customer to play in and take out money (bank account)
Johnny
pay, not play sorry
Johnny
four effects of inflation in an economy
Acha
oil
TsendeTheRipper
decreases living standards .. decreases purchasing power.. Decreases internation competition . increases the cost of borrowing
MansoorAfghan
Inflation refers to persistent increase in the general prices of commodities.
Aluko
he asked for effects
MansoorAfghan
Low standard of living, prices of commodities will be high, devaluation of currency in the economy
Aluko
Debtors gain while creditors loses
Ojo
Hi every one
Ani
Hello
Ansah
hi
kelvin
hi
Seven
Hii
raushan
how are you all
Seven
Fin and you
raushan
me also
Seven
Whare do you live
raushan
general tendency of rising price and continuous... .
Auqib
any one among you is going to aaper in net exam day after tomorrow
Auqib
reply?
Auqib
pakistan
Seven
Oo Pakistan I am India
raushan
really from Pakistan
Auqib
ok
Seven
You noo hindi
raushan
no
Seven
hi
ken
different between demand and quantity demand
Farhan Reply
No difference
MansoorAfghan
demand is the overall demand for it
MansoorAfghan
actually theres no difference
MansoorAfghan
quantity demanded is used in Equilibrium of d and s
MansoorAfghan
for evrything else u use deman
MansoorAfghan
the difference of it is that when demand simply denotes the willingness and a person's ability to purchase. And as against quantity demand represent the amount of an economic good or services desire by a consumer at a fixed price .☺
Gafar
how to calculate inflation
Richard Reply
Explain the factors that have led to high quantity demanded
Ogwang Reply
price of the product increase of price substitute product as people shift to cheap one
Black
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Source:  OpenStax, Chapter 12: personality sw. OpenStax CNX. Jun 08, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11812/1.1
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