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School districts were selected from a total of 167 districts listed in the South Dakota Department of Education, Educational Directory for the school year 2006-2007. This convenient sample was based on school size, geographic region of the state, and administrator’s willingness to participate in the study. Seven school districts, for a total of 131 educators, agreed to participate in the study. Two of the school sites had enrollments of over 200 students, while two had 150 or more students and three had less than 100 students enrolled. All districts participating in the study were located within a hundred mile radius in the southeastern region of South Dakota. There were two elementary building administrators, two middle school principals, three secondary administrators, and one 7-12 principal. One hundred twenty-five respondents were classroom teachers. There were four female administrators and three male administrators, and 42 male teachers and 89 female teachers participated in the study.

Data analysis

Conjoint analysis is a multivariate technique, frequently used in market research, providing insight into how participants develop preferences for products or ideas (Pietzrak, 2006). Conjoint analysis is appropriate for research in the educational arena (Shukla&Bruno, 2001; Wong, Chan, Cardosa, Lam,&Miller, 2004). Shukla and Bruno (2001) suggested that identifying a person’s preference may provide insight into the choices or decisions that they will be required to make in their professional positions. In this study, conjoint analysis is used to assess educators’ perceptions of the value of the professional administrative standards developed by Educational Leadership Constituent Council, as well as, their perceptions on the implementation of these standards in administrative practice.

Systat software is used to determine the means, standard deviations, and frequencies for each survey item. In addition, the Mann Whitney U Test and the Kruskal-Wallis Test are utilized to analyze perceptions based on the characteristics of gender, years of teaching experience, and educational level.


Seven school sites were included in this study providing input from 132 teachers and eight school administrators. All respondents completed a survey that asked them to rank the importance they perceived for each ELCC standard, as well as, rank how each individual perceived the leader practiced the ELCC standards. Table 1 provides a summary of the means for the teachers’ and administrators’ perceptions as to the ranking of the ELCC standards.

Teachers’ and administrators’ ranking of the importance of elcc standards
Mean Teachers Rank Teachers Mean Administrators Rank Administrators
Vision 2.64 3 2.88 3
Instructional Leadership 2.56 2 1.63 1
Management 3.15 4 3.75 4
Community Relations 4.30 5 5.00 5
Ethical Leadership 2.00 1 2.25 2
Professional Involvement 5.59 6 5.50 6

Administrators’ and teachers’ perceptions of importance of the ELCC standards were generally in agreement; however, there is a difference in the rating of the most important standard. Administrators rank instructional leadership as most important, and teachers rank ethical leadership as most important.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
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types of nano material
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I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea education leadership review, volume 10, number 2; august 2009. OpenStax CNX. Feb 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10710/1.2
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