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The world’s industrialized countries are undergoing many changes as they move to the later stages of the Industrial Revolution. Economies are becoming more information based, and capital is being measured not only in terms of tangible products and human workers, but also in terms of social and intellectual assets....

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The world’s industrialized countries are undergoing many changes as they move to the later stages of the Industrial Revolution. Economies are becoming more information based, and capital is being measured not only in terms of tangible products and human workers, but also in terms of social and intellectual assets. For example, the makeup of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for the United States has gradually changed from being mainly manufactured goods to one with services predominating. Computer software and many other services, which are not easily categorized under the old economic system, now represent the largest sector of the United States' economy.

This change in economic thinking has brought about a deeper awareness of the natural processes and ecological assets found in nature. Society is slowly shifting to an industrial model that includes recycling. Such closed-loop production encompasses the principles of waste-reduction, re-manufacturing and re-use. Conventional industrial economics considered air, water and the earth's natural cycles to be "free" goods. However, such thought led to considerable external environmental and social costs. With the rise of environmentally responsible economics, there is a movement to change to full-cost pricing of goods, which includes the social and environmental costs of production.

Attempts have been made to overhaul economic indicators such as the GDP to take into account intangible assets and intellectual property. In 1994, the Clinton Administration attempted to integrate environmental factors into the GDP. The World Bank in 1995 redefined its Wealth Index. A nation's wealth now consists of 60 percent human capital (social and intellectual assets), 20 percent environmental capital (natural assets), and 20 percent built capital (tangible assets). These green GDP figures are intended to provide a better measure of the quality of life in a country than the traditional GDP, which looked only at tangible economic factors. However, such methods fail to take into account other areas that affect the quality of life in a country, such as human rights, health and education.

In attempts to develop a better measure of the quality of life of a region, separate sets of economic, environmental and social indicators have been devised. The reasoning of this is that it is better to consider several separate indicators, rather than try to create a single, catch-all index. This approach does not require the difficult, if not impossible, attempt to place monetary values on all factors. The Calvert-Henderson Group chose twelve separate quality of life indicators: education, employment, energy, environment, health, human rights, income, infrastructure, national security, public safety, recreation and shelter. Although separate, each indicator is related to the others, and all are based on readily available demographic data.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
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