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I first present the extent to which Hispanics in general, and specifically Hispanic immigrants, are involved in the U.S. criminal justice system as victims, arrestees, and prisoners. Following the criminological tenet that criminal behavior is socially learned, and as such, corresponds to a society’s culture and structure, the significance of this massive Hispanic immigrant involvement is then theoretically interpreted as an assimilation mode. Finally, my study points to research on Hispanic delinquents for clues to how gang interactions and police-immigrant contacts help to assimilate second-generation adolescents to the criminal justice culture and structure.

Hispanics’ involvement in the u.s. criminal justice system

There is limited information on the extent of Hispanic involvement in criminal justice. Even less is available for distinguishing between Hispanic immigrant and native-born criminal justice involvement. However, reasonable generalizations about immigrant involvement can be made on the basis of known characteristics of foreign and native-born Hispanics. Drawing from criminal justice and demographic research, the discussion below examines existing knowledge about Hispanic immigrants and children of immigrants as crime victims, arrestees, and prisoners. Also considered is the limited information on Hispanic undocumented immigrants’ experiences with crime and justice.

Crime victims

The U.S. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) estimated the violent crime victimization rate in 2000 to be 2,900 per 100,000 persons age 12 or older, while the property crime rate was estimated at 17,800 per 100,000 (BJS, 2001). Hispanic victimization rates are slightly higher than non-Hispanics’. In 2000, as shown in Table 1, 2,710 per 100,000 persons ages 12 or older reported being victims of rape, robbery, aggravated assault, simple assault, or personal theft. Hispanic rates were slightly higher than the mean; Blacks had the highest victimization rates, 3,530 offenses per 100,000, while those of Whites and others (Asians and American Indians) were below the mean. The NCVS report shows rates per 1,000 persons. Here they are converted to rates per 100,000 in order to compare them with arrest and imprisonment rates, which are reported per 100,000 population. The figures slightly overestimate the extent of White victimization because NCVS classifies Hispanics’ race according to the respondent’s self-definition of race. Making the simple assumption that all Hispanics define their race as White and subtracting the Hispanic population from the White total, the non-Hispanic White victimization rate is reduced by less than 1 percentage point. The reported Hispanic rates appear to represent a payoff from a decade of diminishing crime. For instance, at the beginning of the 1990s, Hispanic personal victimization rates were 10% higher than non-Hispanics’, and Hispanic property victimization rates were 40% higher than non-Hispanics’.

Table 1. Personal Victimization Rates per 100,000 Persons Age 12 or older, Year 2000. According to Type of Offense, Race and Ethnicity.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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