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In terms of the project’s goals that are less “scholarly” but more crucial overall, this project aims to promote public access to scholarship and public domain documents. The site and the editions contained in it will be licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike license that will enable the digitized documents and editions to be accessed and used freely. Making digital editions usable, accessible, readily annotated, and free of restrictions will help to ensure sustainability for non-commercialized projects. Perhaps the most important issue facing scholarly use of digital texts—possibly more important than TEI-compliant markup, machine-readable texts, digital tools for collocation and concordance, etc., as valuable as they are—is copyright, and the public access to high-quality, carefully edited, digital editions (whatever the future structure of digital “editions” might be). See also Allison Muri, “The Technology and Future of the Book: What a Digital ‘Grub Street’ can tell us about Communications, Commerce, and Creativity,” in Producing the Eighteenth-Century Book: Writers and Publishers in England, 1650 1800 , ed. Laura L. Runge and Pat Rogers (University of Delaware Press, 2009), 235–50.

Copyright issues are not new to digital projects, but the atmosphere of restrictions and controls over these materials is much more vigorous today. When scholarship is owned by commercial interests, we risk losing our ability to participate in our own discourses. Copyright has been, mostly, a fair means of protecting authors’, publishers’, and scholars’ interests in the world of print. However, everything changes when digital technologies render all communications as copies. This situation has resulted in sometimes excessively restrictive user agreements written for companies that have built their business models on distributing books and journals in the age of print, when it was harder to copy and re-use words or images.

As an example, consider the legal notice for the OED Online , which reads as follows:

you may not … systematically make printed or electronic copies of multiple extracts of OED Online for any purpose; … display or distribute any part of OED Online on any electronic network, including without limitation the Internet and the World Wide Web (other than the institution’s secure network, where the Subscriber is an institution); … use all or any part of OED Online for any commercial use. (External Link) .

Merriam-Webster Online similarly limits the use of its text:

No part of the work embodied in Merriam-Webster’s pages on the World Wide Web and covered by the copyrights hereon may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems—without the written permission of the publisher. (External Link) .

The commercial and legal motivations for such notices are understandable when the tools for copying and publishing are ubiquitous and easily employed; however, a dismaying trend here, by no means unique to these publications, is the explicit overriding of any principles of fair use or fair dealing. Aside from the obvious vagaries of terms such as “systematic” or “multiple,” readers and writers are apparently forbidden to use any portion in an online work, in a commercial work, or in the case of Merriam-Webster, in any work whatsoever. An added irony is that a significant proportion of these dictionaries has been compiled from a long and profitable tradition of stealing, pilfering, and fair use. If one compares, for example, the definitions for theft provided by OED Online and Merriam-Webster Online to those from seventeenth- and eighteenth-century dictionaries, it becomes clear that each definition draws heavily upon and uses the same words as its predecessors. Compare the obvious “borrowings” in Thomas Blount’s Nomo-lexikon (1670); Ephraim Chambers’ Cyclopædia (1728); Benjamin Norton Defoe’s A Compleat English Dictionary (1735); Samuel Johnson’s A Dictionary of the English Language (1756); John Marchant’s A New Complete English Dictionary (1760); Daniel Fenning’s The Royal English Dictionary (1761); Francis Allen’s A Complete English Dictionary (1765); John Ash’s The New and Complete Dictionary of the English Language (1775); James Barclay’s A Complete and Universal English Dictionary (1782). The OED ’s “felonious taking away of the personal goods of another; larceny” comes almost unchanged from early printed dictionaries: Thomas Blount’s Nomo-lexikon (1670) defines it as “Felonious taking away another mans moveable and personable Goods....  See Larceny and Felony,” while Ephraim Chambers’ Cyclopædia (1728) has “felonious taking away another man’s moveable and personal Goods… See Larceny .” Clearly, the copyrighted definitions that we may not freely use (if we were to obey the legal license in its strictest sense) have been appropriated from the public domain and potentially from fair use or fair dealing.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Online humanities scholarship: the shape of things to come. OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11199/1.1
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