<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
Describes continuous time systems.

Introduction

As you already now know, a continuous time system operates on a continuous time signal input and produces a continuous time signal output. There are numerous examples of useful continuous time systems in signal processing as they essentially describe the world around us. The class of continuous time systems that are both linear and time invariant, known as continuous time LTI systems, is of particular interest as the properties of linearity and time invariance together allow the use of some of the most important and powerful tools in signal processing.

Continuous time systems

Linearity and time invariance

A system H is said to be linear if it satisfies two important conditions. The first, additivity, states for every pair of signals x , y that H ( x + y ) = H ( x ) + H ( y ) . The second, homogeneity of degree one, states for every signal x and scalar a we have H ( a x ) = a H ( x ) . It is clear that these conditions can be combined together into a single condition for linearity. Thus, a system is said to be linear if for every signals x , y and scalars a , b we have that

H ( a x + b y ) = a H ( x ) + b H ( y ) .

Linearity is a particularly important property of systems as it allows us to leverage the powerful tools of linear algebra, such as bases, eigenvectors, and eigenvalues, in their study.

A system H is said to be time invariant if a time shift of an input produces the corresponding shifted output. In other, more precise words, the system H commutes with the time shift operator S T for every T R . That is,

S T H = H S T .

Time invariance is desirable because it eases computation while mirroring our intuition that, all else equal, physical systems should react the same to identical inputs at different times.

When a system exhibits both of these important properties it allows for a more straigtforward analysis than would otherwise be possible. As will be explained and proven in subsequent modules, computation of the system output for a given input becomes a simple matter of convolving the input with the system's impulse response signal. Also proven later, the fact that complex exponential are eigenvectors of linear time invariant systems will enable the use of frequency domain tools such as the various Fouier transforms and associated transfer functions, to describe the behavior of linear time invariant systems.

Consider the system H in which

H ( f ( t ) ) = 2 f ( t )

for all signals f . Given any two signals f , g and scalars a , b

H ( a f ( t ) + b g ( t ) ) ) = 2 ( a f ( t ) + b g ( t ) ) = a 2 f ( t ) + b 2 g ( t ) = a H ( f ( t ) ) + b H ( g ( t ) )

for all real t . Thus, H is a linear system. For all real T and signals f ,

S T ( H ( f ( t ) ) ) = S T ( 2 f ( t ) ) = 2 f ( t - T ) = H ( f ( t - T ) ) = H ( S T ( f ( t ) ) )

for all real t . Thus, H is a time invariant system. Therefore, H is a linear time invariant system.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Differential equation representation

It is often useful to to describe systems using equations involving the rate of change in some quantity. For continuous time systems, such equations are called differential equations. One important class of differential equations is the set of linear constant coefficient ordinary differential equations, which are described in more detail in subsequent modules.

Consider the series RLC circuit shown in [link] . This system can be modeled using differential equations. We can use the voltage equations for each circuit element and Kirchoff's voltage law to write a second order linear constant coefficient differential equation describing the charge on the capacitor.

The voltage across the battery is simply V . The voltage across the capacitor is 1 C q . The voltage across the resistor is R d q d t . Finally, the voltage across the inductor is L d 2 q d t 2 . Therefore, by Kirchoff's voltage law, it follows that

L d 2 q d t 2 + R d q d t + 1 C q = V .
A series RLC circuit.
Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Continuous time systems summary

Many useful continuous time systems will be encountered in a study of signals and systems. This course is most interested in those that demonstrate both the linearity property and the time invariance property, which together enable the use of some of the most powerful tools of signal processing. It is often useful to describe them in terms of rates of change through linear constant coefficient ordinary differential equations.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Signals and systems. OpenStax CNX. Aug 14, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10064/1.15
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Signals and systems' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask