# 5.12 Continuous function  (Page 5/6)

 Page 5 / 6

Many of the known functions are continuous in open interval. Polynomial, trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic functions etc. are continuous functions in open interval.

## Continuity in a closed interval [a,b]

The possibility that there always exist a point around a given point is not there at end points of closed interval. We can not determine left limit at lower end and right limit at upper end of the closed interval. For this reason, we test continuity of function at the closing points from one side only. For a function to be continuous in the closed interval, it should be continuous at all points in the interval and also at the bounding values of closed intereval, [a,b]. Hence,

(i) limit exists at all points in the interval and are equal to function values at those points.

$\underset{x>c}{\overset{}{\mathrm{lim}}}f\left(x\right)=f\left(c\right);a

(ii) right limit exists at x=a and is equal to function value at the lower end of closed interval. .

$\underset{x>a+}{\overset{}{\mathrm{lim}}}f\left(x\right)=f\left(a\right)$

(iii) left limit exists at x=b and is equal to function value at the upper end of closed interval.

$\underset{x>b-}{\overset{}{\mathrm{lim}}}f\left(x\right)=f\left(a\right)$

## Function operations, compositions of function and continuity

If two functions are continuous at a point or in interval, then function resulting from function operations like addition, subtraction, scalar product, product and quotient are continuous at that point. Further, properly formed function compositions of two or more functions are also continuous.

These properties of continuity are extremely helpful tool for determining continuity of more complicated functions, which are formed from basic functions. Idea is that we are aware of continuity of basic functions. Therefore, continuity of functions formed from these basic functions will also be continuous.

Generally, basic functions are continuous in real numbers set R or its subsets. For example, we know that polynomial functions, sine, cosine, tangent, exponential and logarithmic functions etc are continuous on R. Similarly, a radical function is continuous for non-negative x values. Their composition or the new function will be continuous in the new domain, which is defined in accordance with the rule given here :

• scalar product (multiplication with a constant) : domain remains same
• addition/subtraction/product : domain is intersection of individual domains
• division or quotient : domain is intersection of individual domains minus points for which denominator is zero
• fog or gof : domain is intersection of individual domains

In the nutshell, the function formed from other functions is continuous in new domain as defined above. If we look closely at the definition of continuity here, then "finding interval in which function is continuous" is same as finding "domain" of new function arising from mathematical operations.

## Continuous extension of function

Many functions are not defined at singularities. For example, rational functions are not defined for values of x when denominator becomes zero. By including these singular points or exception points in the domain, we can redefine function such that it becomes continuous in the extended domain. This extension of the domain of function such that function remains continuous is known as continuous extension.

what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
What is power set
Period of sin^6 3x+ cos^6 3x
Period of sin^6 3x+ cos^6 3x