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Natural sciences

The earth and beyond

The stars

Educator section

Memorandum

1. Star: Heavenly body that emits light. Consists mainly of burning helium and hydrogen.

Planet: Lifeless heavenly body that gets light from the sun.

2. Look at page 2 in the module.

Leaner section

Content

EARLY MAN TRIED TO EXPLAIN THE MOVEMENT OF THE STARS AND PLANETS BY MEANS OF MYTHS AND LEGENDS. THE ANCIENT GREEKS TOOK A MORE SCIENTIFIC VIEW, BUT EVEN THEY BELIEVED MISTAKENLY THAT THE EARTH WAS AT THE CENTRE OF THE UNIVERSE.

FOR A FEW HUNDRED YEARS ONLY HAVE WE KNOWN THAT THE EARTH IS A VERY SMALL AND INSIGNIFICANT DOT? OUR SMALL PLANET ORBITS THE SUN, WHICH IN TURN IS MERELY ONE OF APPROXIMATELY 100 000 MILLION STARS IN OUR GALAXY AND WE NOW KNOW THAT THERE ARE AT LEAST 1 000 MILLION OTHER GALAXIES AS WELL.

Activity: to discuss the use of stars and planets with regard to the development of calendars [lo 2.1]

THE CHRISTIAN CALENDAR

  • This calendar uses the sun as the main means of keeping time. One year therefore measures 365¼ days - the exact duration of one of the earth's orbits of the sun. The beginning of the Christian calendar is the birth of Jesus Christ. The years preceding this event are referred to as before Christ or BC, and the years following it are spoken of as anno Domini (the year of the Lord) or AD.
  • This calendar is the most commonly used calendar throughout the world (also by non-Christians).

THE MUSLIM CALENDAR

  • People in the Muslim community use the moon to keep time. (The moon, being still and lifeless, has no light of its own but merely reflects the light of the sun. The moon therefore is not a star.)

THE JEWISH CALENDAR

  • Jews use a calendar that refers to the moon for counting the months and the sun for determining the length of the years. This calendar is dated from the time of the Biblical creation of the world.
  • Although the Jewish and Christian calendars use the sun to determine the length of a year, the dates of the Christian and Jewish New Year do not coincide.

THE CHINESE CALENDAR

  • The sun and the planet Jupiter are used by the Chinese to calculate time. Jupiter takes about 12 years to complete an orbit of the sun. The Chinese calendar is therefore based on a cycle of twelve years. Each year is named after an animal.
  • Each of the animals have particular characteristics, which, according to Chinese belief, are transferred to the people who are born in the particular year.

FIND OUT

1. Consult a dictionary or any other dependable source to find out what the difference between a planet and a star is.

Star: _________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
Planet: _________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________

2. Explain how the calendars of Christian, Jewish, Muslim and Chinese people differ.

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Assessment

Learning Outcome 2: The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

Assessment Standard 2.1: We know this when the learner recalls meaningful information.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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Akash Reply
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Maciej
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for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
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are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
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Cied
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I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 16, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11079/1.1
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