# 28.6 Relativistic energy  (Page 7/12)

 Page 7 / 12

A photon decays into an electron-positron pair. What is the kinetic energy of the electron if its speed is $0.992c$ ?

$\begin{array}{lll}{\text{KE}}_{\text{rel}}& =& \left(\gamma -1\right){\mathrm{mc}}^{2}=\left(\frac{1}{\sqrt{1-\frac{{v}^{2}}{{c}^{2}}}}-1\right){\mathrm{mc}}^{2}\\ & =& \left(\frac{1}{\sqrt{1-\frac{\left(\text{0.992}c{\right)}^{2}}{{c}^{2}}}}-1\right)\left(\text{9.11}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{31}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg}\right)\left(\text{3.00}×{\text{10}}^{8}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m/s}{\right)}^{2}=\text{5.67}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{13}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}\end{array}$

## Section summary

• Relativistic energy is conserved as long as we define it to include the possibility of mass changing to energy.
• Total Energy is defined as: $E={\mathrm{\gamma mc}}^{2}$ , where $\gamma =\frac{1}{\sqrt{1-\frac{{v}^{2}}{{c}^{2}}}}$ .
• Rest energy is ${E}_{0}={\mathrm{mc}}^{2}$ , meaning that mass is a form of energy. If energy is stored in an object, its mass increases. Mass can be destroyed to release energy.
• We do not ordinarily notice the increase or decrease in mass of an object because the change in mass is so small for a large increase in energy.
• The relativistic work-energy theorem is ${W}_{\text{net}}=E-{E}_{0}=\gamma {\mathrm{mc}}^{2}-{\mathrm{mc}}^{2}=\left(\gamma -1\right){\mathrm{mc}}^{2}$ .
• Relativistically, ${W}_{\text{net}}={\text{KE}}_{\text{rel}}$ , where ${\text{KE}}_{\text{rel}}$ is the relativistic kinetic energy.
• Relativistic kinetic energy is ${\text{KE}}_{\text{rel}}=\left(\gamma -1\right){\mathrm{mc}}^{2}$ , where $\gamma =\frac{1}{\sqrt{1-\frac{{v}^{2}}{{c}^{2}}}}$ . At low velocities, relativistic kinetic energy reduces to classical kinetic energy.
• No object with mass can attain the speed of light because an infinite amount of work and an infinite amount of energy input is required to accelerate a mass to the speed of light.
• The equation ${E}^{2}=\left(\mathrm{pc}{\right)}^{2}+\left({\mathrm{mc}}^{2}{\right)}^{2}$ relates the relativistic total energy $E$ and the relativistic momentum $p$ . At extremely high velocities, the rest energy ${\mathrm{mc}}^{2}$ becomes negligible, and $E=\mathrm{pc}$ .

## Conceptual questions

How are the classical laws of conservation of energy and conservation of mass modified by modern relativity?

What happens to the mass of water in a pot when it cools, assuming no molecules escape or are added? Is this observable in practice? Explain.

Consider a thought experiment. You place an expanded balloon of air on weighing scales outside in the early morning. The balloon stays on the scales and you are able to measure changes in its mass. Does the mass of the balloon change as the day progresses? Discuss the difficulties in carrying out this experiment.

The mass of the fuel in a nuclear reactor decreases by an observable amount as it puts out energy. Is the same true for the coal and oxygen combined in a conventional power plant? If so, is this observable in practice for the coal and oxygen? Explain.

We know that the velocity of an object with mass has an upper limit of $c$ . Is there an upper limit on its momentum? Its energy? Explain.

Given the fact that light travels at $c$ , can it have mass? Explain.

If you use an Earth-based telescope to project a laser beam onto the Moon, you can move the spot across the Moon’s surface at a velocity greater than the speed of light. Does this violate modern relativity? (Note that light is being sent from the Earth to the Moon, not across the surface of the Moon.)

## Problems&Exercises

What is the rest energy of an electron, given its mass is $9\text{.}\text{11}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{31}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg}$ ? Give your answer in joules and MeV.

$8.20×{\text{10}}^{-\text{14}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$

0.512 MeV

Find the rest energy in joules and MeV of a proton, given its mass is $1\text{.}\text{67}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{27}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg}$ .

If the rest energies of a proton and a neutron (the two constituents of nuclei) are 938.3 and 939.6 MeV respectively, what is the difference in their masses in kilograms?

$2\text{.}3×{\text{10}}^{-\text{30}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg}$

what is wave
u r looking nice . oscillations through which energy transfers without any transfer of mass.
Piyali
wave involve in transport of energy without transport of matter
Ana
yup
Ana
what is temperature
temperature is the measure of degree of hotness or coldness of a body. measured in kelvin
a characteristic which tells hotness or coldness of a body
babar
Average kinetic energy of an object
Kym
average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
Kym
A measure of the quantity of heat contained in an object which arises from the average kinetic energy of the constituent particles of that object. It can be measured using thermometers. It has a unit of kelvin in the thermodynamic scale and degree Celsius in the Celsius scale.
ibrahim
Mass of air bubble in material medium is negative. why?
a car move 6m. what is the acceleration?
depends how long
Peter
What is the simplest explanation on the difference of principle, law and a theory
how did the value of gravitational constant came give me the explanation
how did the value of gravitational constant 6.67×10°-11Nm2kg-2
Varun
A steel ball is dropped onto a hard floor from a height of 1.50 m and rebounds to a height of 1.45 m. (a) Calculate its velocity just before it strikes the floor.
9.8m/s?
Sqrt(2*1.5m*9.81m/s^2)
Richard
0.5m* mate.
0.05 I meant.
Guess your solution is correct considering the ball fall from 1.5m height initially.
Sqrt(2*1.5m*9.81m/s^2)
Deepak
How can we compare different combinations of capacitors?
find the dimension of acceleration if it's unit is ms-2
lt^-2
b=-2 ,a =1
M^0 L^1T^-2
Sneha
what is botany
Masha
it is a branch of science which deal with the study of plants animals and environment
Varun
what is work
a boy moving with an initial velocity of 2m\s and finally canes to rest with a velocity of 3m\s square at times 10se calculate it acceleration
Sunday
.
Abdul
6.6 lol 😁😁
Abdul
show ur work
Sunday
Abdul
Abdul
If the boy is coming to rest then how the hell will his final velocity be 3 it'll be zero
Abdul
re-write the question
Nicolas
men i -10 isn't correct.
Stephen
using v=u + at
Stephen
1/10
Happy
ya..1/10 is very correct..
Stephen
hnn
Happy
how did the value 6.67×10°-11Nm2kg2 came tell me please
Varun
Work is the product of force and distance
Kym
physicist
Michael
what is longitudinal wave
A longitudinal wave is wave which moves parallel or along the direction of propagation.
sahil
longitudinal wave in liquid is square root of bulk of modulus by density of liquid
harishree
Is British mathematical units the same as the United States units?(like inches, cm, ext.)
We use SI units: kg, m etc but the US sometimes refer to inches etc as British units even though we no longer use them.
Richard
Thanks, just what I needed to know.
Nina
What is the advantage of a diffraction grating over a double slit in dispersing light into a spectrum?
yes.
Abdul
Yes
Albert
sure
Ajali
yeap
Sani
yesssss
bilal
hello guys
Ibitayo
when you will ask the question
Ana
bichu
is free energy possible with magnets?
joel
no
Mr.
you could construct an aparatus that might have a slightly higher 'energy profit' than energy used, but you would havw to maintain the machine, and most likely keep it in a vacuum, for no air resistance, and cool it, so chances are quite slim.
Mr.
calculate the force, p, required to just make a 6kg object move along the horizontal surface where the coefficient of friction is 0.25
Gbolahan
Albert
if a man travel 7km 30degree east of North then 10km east find the resultant displacement
11km
Dohn
disagree. Displacement is the hypotenuse length of the final position to the starting position. Find x,y components of each leg of journey to determine final position, then use final components to calculate the displacement.
Daniel