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This is a basic introduction to the CNXML language. It includes a description on how to begin a CNXML module and also examples of the basic tags needed to start writing in CNXML.

Starting with cnxml

CNXML is a lightweight XML markup language for marking up educational content. The goal of CNXML is to conveythe content of the material and not a particular presentation. Connexions uses the Connexions Markup Language (CNXML) as its primary language for storing documents. Now let's get started!

Cnxml tags


All CNXML documents have as their root the document tag. Everything about the document including it's metadata and content are containedwithin the document tag. It is important that you understand the basic structure for a CNXML document. The structure isas follows:

    Document (root tag)

  • Title
  • Metadata Section
  • Content Section

The document tag has one required attribute:

  • id - a unique ID given to the document.
This is automatically assigned.

Id requirements

One major difference between CNXML and other markup languages is the id attribute requirement. Certain tags require that you include the id attribute, but all can possess an id . The tags requiring an id are listed below:

  • document
  • para
  • equation
  • list
  • rule
  • definition
  • exercise
  • table
  • div
  • section
  • subfigure
  • example
  • footnote
  • problem
  • solution
  • block quotes
  • media
  • meaning
  • proof
  • list
  • preformat
  • block code
  • figure
  • block notes
So, if you are going to use any of the above tags, be sure to add the id attribute and give it a unique 'id'. Be aware that in CNXML 0.6 ids will be generated automatically, but you are still permitted to specify you own ids if you wish.

Here is an example of a couple of paras containing a user generated ids.

<para id='uniqueid1'>This is an example to illustrate the use of the<code>id</code>attribute.</para><para id='uniqueid2'>This paragraph has a different id than the last.</para>
Any tag can contain an id attribute. This is useful if you want to link to the information contained in a particular tag.


The document tag should also contain any namespace declarations. Namespaces allow us to easily use other mark-up languages within CNXML without having toworry about whether tag name collision will occur. For simple documents using only CNXML, you need to include theCNXML namespace attribute . Any additional languages need to be declared as well andshould be given their own prefixes. For example, to associate the MathML namespace with the prefix "m",include the following attribute: xmlns:m='http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML' . This states that any tag with a prepended "m" will beinterpreted as a MathML tag while any tag without a prefix will be interpreted as CNXML. The document tag should also contain the metadata namespace xmlns:md="http://cnx.rice.edu/mdml/0.4" , the bibtex namspace xmlns:bib="http://bibtexml.sf.net/" , and the question markup language xmlns:q="http://cnx.rice.edu/qml/1.0" .

This what the document tag should look like.

<document xmlns="http://cnx.rice.edu/cnxml" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"xmlns:md="http://cnx.rice.edu/mdml/0.4" xmlns:bib="http://bibtexml.sf.net/"xmlns:q="http://cnx.rice.edu/qml/1.0" id="m9000" module-id="" cnxml-version="0.6">
Be aware that the you document id can not be the same as this example. Each module will have its own unique id.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Cnxml tutorial. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10121/1.10
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