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Next, choose Auto-->Rename Components . You silkscreen should look a lot different now.

Before Renaming
After Renaming

Since you have changed the reference designators in your design, you need to generate a swap file and perform back annotation. You should do this IMMEDIATELY . If you don’t, it can cause some serious problems for you later in the design. When you read the swap file into Capture, you may get errors on renaming the mounting holes. It is safe to ignore these.

Checking for errors

The next step in the design process is to check for any spacing errors. OrCAD uses the spacing variable that you set earlier to determine if there are errors in your design. We used 10 mil spacing from all features as a minimum for this design. To perform a Design Rule Check (DRC) choose Auto-->Design Rule Check… from the menu.

Make sure all the Check Rule Settings are checked and click OK . Your design will rarely contain no errors, and you will need to look at the errors spreadsheet to see what the errors are. Some can be safely ignored.

In this example there are four Pad Spacing Errors, one generated by each of the mounting holes. In this case OrCAD is complaining because the place outline for the part is on the edge of the board. This error is OK to ignore. If there are errors that need to be fixed, you can delete the marker from the spreadsheet. Let’s generate a route spacing error so you can see what it looks like. These are the most important. Move a trace anywhere in your design so that it conflicts with another trace or pad.

Now rerun the DRC. The new errors should appear in the spreadsheet.

You can remove the errors by moving the trace back to its original position. Once the error has been corrected, you can delete the marker from the errors spreadsheet. Do not try to use the Auto-->Remove Violations tool. It is tempting, but it will actually rip up offending traces and move parts. You will end up having to do a lot of cleanup and rerouting after using this tool.

Cleaning up&The design

Now it is time to clean up your design. You should think of your board as a work of art. Other people may look at it, so you want it to look nice. Furthermore, a clean design will ensure fabrication success. When cleaning the design, the following should be kept in mind.

A. Route Spacing – You have set a minimum of 10 mils for feature spacing in your design. However, do not pack traces closely together unless you have to. First, you can push the manufacturing limits to far and some of your boards may come back bad. Second, routing traces closely together is generally a bad idea because this can result in undesired mutual inductance between traces.

B. Right Angles in Traces – Don’t use right angles in routing your traces. Miter the corners.

BAD
GOOD

C. Pad Exits – Trace exits from pads should be clean and not come out of the pad at unusual angles.

BAD
GOOD

D. Remove Extra Vias – Vias add cost to a board, so it is a good practice to remove any unnecessary vias from your design.

E. Drills – Drills require some special attention. First, you need to fix the error you got earlier about the drills. This error occurs sometimes after you perform an ECO. To see the problem, make the Drill Drawing (DRD) layer visible. Press Backspace to clear the display and then Shift-5 to display just the DRD layer.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, High-speed and embedded systems design (under construction). OpenStax CNX. Feb 18, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10212/1.12
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