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Accessing private members

In those cases where it is necessary for an object of the local class to access private members of the containing object, the compiler automaticallycreates and uses accessor methods that make such access possible.

Similar to your code

The bottom line is that the code that is automatically produced by the compiler is probably very similar to code that you would write if you werewriting the program using only top-level classes. The good news is that you don't have to write that extra code, and you don't have to maintain it. Theextra code is written for you, and if you modify your class structure, the extra code is automatically modified accordingly.

Discussion and sample code

The paragraphs that follow will explain a program named InnerClasses07 . This program is designed specifically to illustrate various characteristics of localclasses. I will discuss the program in fragments. A complete listing is shown in Listing 17 near the end of the module.

This program illustrates the use of local classes. The program consists of a total of five classes:

  • Four top-level classes named
    • InnerClasses07
    • A
    • X
    • Y
  • A local class named B.

When compiled, the program produces the class files shown in Figure 1 . The file named A$1$B.class represents the local class. The remaining files in Figure 1 represent the four top-level classes.

Class hierarchy

In the previous module, I explained that once you understand the class file naming convention, you can determine from the filenames how top-level classes and member classes are structured. However, the situation isn't nearly so clear when it comes to local classes and anonymousclasses. This will become more apparent in the next module, which combines local classes and anonymous classes.

Overall program structure and behavior

Containment hierarchy

The program named InnerClasses07 defines a local class named B inside an instance method named meth .

The method named meth is an instance method of a top-level class named A . The method named meth instantiates two separate objects of the local class named B , and calls a method named showB on each of them.

The method named showB displays certain data values that illustrate the characteristics of localclasses, as well as the containment hierarchy among objects of the local class and an object of the containing class.

In this case, objects of the class named B are contained within an object of the class named A . (The class named A is an enclosing class of the class named B .)

Inheritance hierarchy

The top-level class named A extends the top-level class named X , (which in turn, extends Object ).

The class named B is contained in or enclosed by the top-level class named A , but extends the top-level class named Y , (which in turn, extends Object ).

There is no inheritance relationship between the classes X and Y (aside from their common superclass named Object ).

There is no inheritance relationship between the classes A and B .

The method named showB also displays data values that are intended to demonstrate that the inheritance hierarchy is independent of thecontainment hierarchy.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Object-oriented programming (oop) with java. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11441/1.201
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