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The far east

Back to The Far East: A.D. 1401 to 1500

China and manchuria (continued ming dynasty)

The virulent form of syphilis, supposedly generated by the interaction of Columbus' men and the Caribbean Indians, reached China about 1505. (Ref. 140 , 260 ) The population about 1580 has been estimated at 130,000,000, although drastic reduction occurred at the end of the century by plague. New crops, including sorghum, sweet potato, maize, peanuts and Irish potatoes were helping to feed the people. Commerce was stimulated by silver from the new world, received in payment for extensive Chinese exports of tea, silk and ceramics. By 1600 the state had converted almost all its revenues to money in the form of silver. (Ref. 140 , 8 , 101 ) In contrast to the West, China had no gradual rise of bourgeoisie as the nature of the state almost prohibited this. A temporary exception might have occurred at the end of this century in the development of the large iron works near Peking and the private porcelain work shops of King-to-chen and the silk trade of Su-Chu. This all stopped with the Manchu conquest in the next century. (Ref. 260 )

Throughout its history China has usually had a command economy with prices and production centrally and rigidly controlled in one way or another

Even today this central command economy continues under the communist regime and has resulted in extensive economic and social woes, as explained by Fox Butterfield in China: Alive in the Bitter Sea (Ref. 280 )
. By making large scale private accumulation of capital difficult or impossible, the pace of economic development and technological innovation was markedly restricted. Thus in this century while European countries were developing new, better and cheaper weaponry, China held fast to large siege cannons and no one had the means or motive for developing gunpowder weaponry in new directions. The resulting lag behind European military and technological development cost them dearly in the long run. (Ref. 279 )

During the Ming Dynasty, about 1517, the Portuguese arrived at Canton with their guns. Being little better than pirates the Chinese treated them as such, although the foreigners did give some aid against other pirates. The Chinese thus finally rewarded them in 1557 by allowing them to settle Macao and to govern it. The Portuguese proceeded to build great opium factories employing men, women and children, all of which brought millions of dollars yearly to the Portuguese provincial government. They were followed by the Spanish, who after taking the Philippines, moved over to take the Chinese island of Formosa after 1571. The Dutch came still later.

It was probably in this century that the compilation of the Great Herbal in 52 volumes, with information about 1,200 herbs, was completed - an authoritative work in China still today. There are many medical adaptations from Chinese medicine in the western world, including iron for anemia, castor oil, lanolin, camphor, chaulmoogra oil, ephedra vulgaris and a method of inoculation with small pox matter for immunization against that disease

These materials all came from China, but not necessarily from this 16th century
.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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