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Experimental synthesis

Part i. synthesis of gold nanoparticles (demo)

Chemicals

1.0 mM HAuCl 4 size 12{ ital "HAuCl" rSub { size 8{4} } } {} (stored in amber bottle)

  • 1% trisodium citrate dihydrate solution

Nanoparticle synthesis

  • Add 20 mL of 1.0 mM HAuCl 4 size 12{ ital "HAuCl" rSub { size 8{4} } } {} to a 50 mL Erlenmeyer flask on a stirring hot plate. Add a magnetic stir bar and bring the solution to a boil.
  • Add 2 mL of 1% trisodium citrate dihydrate solution and observe the properties.

Part ii. synthesis of the aqueous ferrofluid (procedure modified from j. chem. edu. 1999, 76, 943-948.)

Chemicals

1 M FeCl 3 size 12{ ital "FeCl" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} in 2 M HCl Solution:

2 M FeCl 2 size 12{ ital "FeCl" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} in 2 M HCl Solution

  • 25% tetramethylammonium hydroxide in water

1.0 M NH 3 size 12{ ital "NH" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} Solution: Dilute at least 200 mL of concentrated ammonium hydroxide with water to 3.0 L). Open containers of ammonia are odorous and their concentration will decrease over periods of time.

CAUTION: Ferrofluids can be messy. This particular ferrofluid will permanently stain almost all fabrics. Also DO NOT LET THE MAGNETITES TOUCH THE SURFACE OF THE MAGNET DIRECTLY.

Magnetite synthesis

  • In a hood, place 4.0 mL of 1M FeCl 3 size 12{ ital "FeCl" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} and 1.0 mL of 2M FeCl 2 size 12{ ital "FeCl" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} solution into a 100 mL beaker. Stir on a magnetic stir plate.
  • While stirring, slowly add 50 mL of 1.0 M aqueous NH 3 size 12{ ital "NH" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} solution over a 5 minute period using a buret. Initially a brown precipitate will form followed by a black precipitate, which is magnetite.
  • CAUTION: Even though 1M NH 3 size 12{ ital "NH" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} is fairly dilute, NH 3 size 12{ ital "NH" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} is a strong base.
  • Remove from stirring and immediately use a strong magnet to work the stir bar up the walls of the beaker. Remove the stir bar with a gloved hand being careful not to let it touch the magnet.
  • Allow the magnetite to settle, then decant off the clear liquid into a waste beaker without losing a large amount of precipitate. The settling process can be expedited by placing a strong magnet below the beaker.
  • Transfer the solid to a plastic weighing boat. Rinse out the beaker with a wash bottle.
  • Use a strong magnet to attract the ferrofluid to the bottom of the weigh boat. Carefully decant as much clear liquid as possible into the waste beaker. Rinse again with water from the wash bottle and decant. Repeat the rinsing process a third time. What are you removing by rinsing?
  • Add 1-2 mL of 25% tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Gently stir the solution with a glass stir rod for at least a minute to suspend the solid in the liquid. Use a strong magnet to attract the ferrofluid to the bottom of the weigh boat. Pour off and discard the dark liquid. Move the strong magnet around and again pour off any liquid. If the ferrofluid does not produce spikes, continue to move the strong magnet around, pouring off any liquid.

Ferrrofluid properties

  • Hold a magnet underneath the weigh boat that contains the ferrofluid. Move the magnet around the underside of the weigh boat. Move the magnet close to and far from the weigh boat. Record your observations
  • Add a couple of drops of ferrofluid to a small piece of clean paper. Let the solution dry. Once it is dry, bring a strong magnet close to the paper. What happens?
  • Use several different magnets to observe the properties of the ferrofluid and record your observations in your notebook.

Part iii. synthesis of cholesteryl ester liquid crystals

Chemicals

  • Cholesteryl oleyl carbonate
  • Cholesteryl pelargonate
  • Cholesteryl benzoate
  • Vials
  • Heat gun

Liquid crystal synthesis

  • Place 0.65 g cholesteryl oleyl carbonate, 0.25 g cholesteryl pelargonate, and 0.10 g cholesteryl benzoate in a vial.
  • In a hood, with the cap off, melt the solid in with a heat gun.
  • While the mixture is still a liquid, divide it into separate vials using a disposable pipette. Put the caps back on the vials. Allow the vials to cool and observe their properties.
  • Clean up your bench area.
  • Listed below is a chart of the different ratios that produce liquid crystals with different transition temperatures. Placing liquid crystals with different transition temperatures next to each other on a clear piece of contact paper makes it possible to make a thermometer.

Cholesteryl oleyl carbonate (g) Cholesteryl pelargonate (g) Cholesteryl benzoate (g) Transition range, degrees C
0.65 0.25 0.10 17-23
0.70 0.10 0.20 20-25
0.45 0.45 0.10 26.5-30.5
0.43 0.47 0.10 29-32
0.44 0.46 0.10 30-33
0.42 0.48 0.10 31-34
0.40 0.50 0.10 32-35
0.38 0.52 0.10 33-36
0.36 0.54 0.10 34-37
0.34 0.56 0.10 35-38
0.32 0.58 0.10 36-39
0.30 0.60 0.10 37-40

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Gen chem lab. OpenStax CNX. Oct 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10452/1.51
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