# 5.3 Metallic bonding

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## The nature of the metallic bond

The structure of a metallic bond is quite different from covalent and ionic bonds. In a metal bond, the valence electrons are delocalised , meaning that an atom's electrons do not stay around that one nucleus. In a metallic bond, the positive atomic nuclei (sometimes called the 'atomic kernels') are surrounded by a sea of delocalised electrons which are attracted to the nuclei ( [link] ).

Metallic bond
Metallic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged atomic nuclei of metal atoms and the delocalised electrons in the metal.

## Activity: building models

Using coloured balls and sticks (or any other suitable materials) build models of each type of bonding. Think about how to represent each kind of bonding. For example, covalent bonding could be represented by simply connecting the balls with sticks to represent the molecules, while for ionic bonding you may wish to construct part of the crystal lattice. Do some research on types of crystal lattices (although the section on ionic bonding only showed the crystal lattice for sodium chloride, many other types of lattices exist) and try to build some of these. Share your findings with your class and compare notes to see what types of crystal lattices they found. How would you show metallic bonding?

You should spend some time doing this activity as it will really help you to understand how atoms combine to form molecules and what the differences are between the types of bonding.

## Chemical bonding

1. Give two examples of everyday objects that contain..
1. covalent bonds
2. ionic bonds
3. metallic bonds
2. Complete the table which compares the different types of bonding:
 Covalent Ionic Metallic Types of atoms involved Nature of bond between atoms Melting Point (high/low) Conducts electricity? (yes/no) Other properties
3. Complete the table below by identifying the type of bond (covalent, ionic or metallic) in each of the compounds:
 Molecular formula Type of bond $\mathrm{H}{}_{2}\mathrm{SO}{}_{4}$ $\mathrm{FeS}$ $\mathrm{NaI}$ $\mathrm{MgCl}{}_{2}$ $\mathrm{Zn}$
4. Which of these substances will conduct electricity most effectively? Give a reason for your answer.
5. Use your knowledge of the different types of bonding to explain the following statements:
1. Swimming during an electric storm (i.e. where there is lightning) can be very dangerous.
2. Most jewellery items are made from metals.
3. Plastics are good insulators.

how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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The fundamental frequency of a sonometer wire streached by a load of relative density 's'are n¹ and n² when the load is in air and completly immersed in water respectively then the lation n²/na is
Properties of longitudinal waves