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Brownlow’s experience as a city manager formed his vision of professional public administration at the federal level. The city manager concept as it developed during the early years of the twentieth century held that the often competing demands for accountability to an electorate and efficient management could be reconciled through the appointment of a specialist (often an engineer) who would oversee management of municipal departments while answering to elected officials rather than an electorate. Harold A. Stone, Don K. Price, and Kathryn H. Stone, City Manager Government in the United States: A Review After Twenty-five Years (Chicago: Public Administration Service, 1940). Brownlow established his Public Administration Clearing House as a means for communication and information exchange among public administrators about their experiences, both positive and negative, with the expressed objective of professionalizing public administration at all levels of government. During the late 1920s and particularly following the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, the efforts of Brownlow and others to professionalize urban public administration came to the attention of several state governors, including Roosevelt in New York. In March 1936, Brownlow was named chairman of the President’s Committee on Administrative Management, and was in a position to try to implement his ideas at the federal level. The committee’s report was transmitted to President Roosevelt early in 1937, well before the November 1938 transmission of Relation of the Federal Government to Research .

Charles e. merriam

Barry D. Karl, Charles Merriam’s biographer, has characterized him as “an academic entrepreneur whose extraordinary sensitivities to the ideas of his times were combined with a willingness to govern the resources available for the development of those ideas to produce a phenomenon rare even in its day: a genuine school of thought.” Ibid . , viii.

Merriam’s principal methodological innovation as the first member (in 1903) of the University of Chicago’s political science department and eventual full professor and chair of that department was to give political science less theoretical and more empirical grounding. In particular, he made use of Chicago itself as a laboratory for field research, following the example set earlier by academic sociologists. His Non-Voting: Causes and Methods of Control , co-authored with his colleague H.F. Gosnell and published in 1924, marked “the public debut of what came to be known as the Chicago School.” Ibid., 148. This study, “utilizing a research staff of undergraduate as well as graduate students, studied the Chicago mayoralty campaign of 1923.” It was “the first major study in political science to use both random sampling and the statistics of attributes.”

Non-Voting and its underlying methodology drew largely favorable reactions from academic social scientists, and Chicago business and political leaders were impressed with the potential of such studies to serve as tools for urban planning. Merriam and his colleagues saw no conflict of interest in involving academic social scientists in business and government. After all, the European founders of the social sciences regarded them as a basis for social engineering that could result in rational policy developments. Part of a wave of politically engaged pre-World-War-II American social scientists, Merriam was active in Chicago politics. He was elected as an alderman, and in 1911 waged an unsuccessful campaign for mayor.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
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Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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